Science

The Principia: The Authoritative Translation and Guide | Sir Isaac Newton

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In his monumental 1687 work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles. This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms. Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. The illuminating Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen makes this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students..

Science

The Key to Newton's Dynamics | J. Bruce Brackenridge

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While much has been written on the ramifications of Newton's dynamics, until now the details of Newton's solution were available only to the physics expert. The Key to Newton's Dynamics clearly explains the surprisingly simple analytical structure that underlies the determination of the force necessary to maintain ideal planetary motion. J. Bruce Brackenridge sets the problem in historical and conceptual perspective, showing the physicist's debt to the works of both Descartes and Galileo. He tracks Newton's work on the Kepler problem from its early stages at Cambridge before 1669, through the revival of his interest ten years later, to its fruition in the first three sections of the first edition of the Principia..

Science

The Principia: The Authoritative Translation | Sir Isaac Newton

The Principia: The Authoritative Translation Pdf/ePub eBook The Principia: The Authoritative Translation Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1794 | Ebook Reads: 1794 | File: The Principia: The Authoritative Translation.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0520964780

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The Principia: The Authoritative Translation - Sir Isaac Newton Preview:

In his monumental 1687 work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles. This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms. Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. The translation-only edition of this preeminent work is truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students..

Science

Reading Popular Newtonianism | Laura Miller

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Reading Popular Newtonianism - Laura Miller Preview:

Sir Isaac Newton’s publications, and those he inspired, were among the most significant works published during the long eighteenth century in Britain. Concepts such as attraction and extrapolation—detailed in his landmark monograph Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica—found their way into both scientific and cultural discourse. Understanding the trajectory of Newton’s diverse critical and popular reception in print demands consideration of how his ideas were disseminated in a marketplace comprised of readers with varying levels of interest and expertise. Reading Popular Newtonianism focuses on the reception of Newton's works in a context framed by authorship, print, editorial practices, and reading. Informed by sustained archival work and multiple critical approaches, Laura Miller asserts that print facilitated the mainstreaming of Newton's ideas. In addition to his reading habits and his manipulation of print conventions in the Principia, Miller analyzes the implied readership of various "popularizations" as well as readers traced through the New York Society Library's borrowing records. Many of the works considered—including encyclopedias, poems, and a work written "for the ladies"—are not scientifically innovative but are essential to eighteenth-century readers’ engagement with Newtonian ideas. Revising the timeline in which Newton’s scientific ideas entered eighteenth-century culture, Reading Popular Newtonianism is the first book to interrogate at length the importance of print to his consequential career..

Psychology

Principia Amoris | John Mordechai Gottman

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Stereotypically, science and emotion are diametric opposites: one is cold and unfeeling, the other soft and nebulous; one is based on proven facts while the other is based on inexplicable feelings and “never the twain shall meet,” until now. John Gottman delves into the unquantifiable realm of love, armed with science and logic, and emerges with the knowledge that relationships can be not only understood, but also predicted as well. Based on research done at his Love Lab and other laboratories, Gottman has discovered that the future of love relationships can be predicted with a startling 91% success rate. These predictions can help couples to prevent disasters in their relationships, recognize the signs of a promising relationship, and perhaps more importantly, recognize the signs of a doomed one. Principia Amoris also introduces Love Equations, a mathematical modeling of relationships that helps understand predictions. Love Equations are powerful tools that can prevent relationship distress and heal ailing relationships. Readers learn about the various research and studies that were done to discover the science behind love, and are treated to a history of the people, ideas, and events that shaped our current understanding. They also learn about: • The “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” • 45 natural principles of love • 5 couple types • 5 recipes for good relationships • And much more! Just as science helped us to understand the physical world, it is helping us to understand the emotional world as well. Using the insights in this book, mental health professionals can meaningfully help their distressed clients, as well as better understand why a relationship is failing or succeeding. Appropriate for the curious non-mental health professional as well, Principia Amoris is a must-have on any bookshelf!.

Science

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics | Jed Z. Buchwald,Robert Fox

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The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics brings together cutting-edge writing by more than twenty leading authorities on the history of physics from the seventeenth century to the present day. By presenting a wide diversity of studies in a single volume, it provides authoritative introductions to scholarly contributions that have tended to be dispersed in journals and books not easily accessible to the general reader. While the core thread remains the theories and experimental practices of physics, the Handbook contains chapters on other dimensions that have their place in any rounded history. These include the role of lecturing and textbooks in the communication of knowledge, the contribution of instrument-makers and instrument-making companies in providing for the needs of both research and lecture demonstrations, and the growing importance of the many interfaces between academic physics, industry, and the military..

Philosophy

The Palgrave Centenary Companion to Principia Mathematica | Bernard Linsky

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The Palgrave Centenary Companion to Principia Mathematica - Bernard Linsky Preview:

To mark the centenary of the 1910 to 1913 publication of the monumental Principia Mathematica by Alfred N. Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, this collection of fifteen new essays by distinguished scholars considers the influence and history of PM over the last hundred years..

History

“The main Business of natural Philosophy” | Steffen Ducheyne

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In this monograph, Steffen Ducheyne provides a historically detailed and systematically rich explication of Newton’s methodology. Throughout the pages of this book, it will be shown that Newton developed a complex natural-philosophical methodology which encompasses procedures to minimize inductive risk during the process of theory formation and which, thereby, surpasses a standard hypothetico-deductive methodological setting. Accordingly, it will be highlighted that the so-called ‘Newtonian Revolution’ was not restricted to the empirical and theoretical dimensions of science, but applied equally to the methodological dimension of science. Furthermore, it will be documented that Newton’s methodology was far from static and that it developed alongside with his scientific work. Attention will be paid not only to the successes of Newton’s innovative methodology, but equally to its tensions and limitations. Based on a thorough study of Newton’s extant manuscripts, this monograph will address and contextualize, inter alia, Newton’s causal realism, his views on action at a distance and space and time, the status of efficient causation in the /Principia/, the different phases of his methodology, his treatment of force and the constituents of the physico-mathematical models in the context of Book I of the /Principia/, the analytic part of the argument for universal gravitation, the meaning and significance of his regulae philosophandi, the methodological differences between his mechanical and optical work, and, finally, the interplay between Newton’s theology and his natural philosophy..

Mathematics

The History of the Priority Di∫pute between Newton and Leibniz | Thomas Sonar

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This book provides a thrilling history of the famous priority dispute between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Isaac Newton, presenting the episode for the first time in the context of cultural history. It introduces readers to the background of the dispute, details its escalation, and discusses the aftermath of the big divide, which extended well into rThe Early Challengesnd the story is very intelligibly explained – an approach that offers general readers interested in the history of sciences and mathematics a window into the world of these two giants in their field. From the epilogue to the German edition by Eberhard Knobloch:Thomas Sonar has traced the emergence and the escalation of this conflict, which was heightened by Leibniz’s rejection of Newton’s gravitation theory, in a grandiose, excitingly written monograph. With absolute competence, he also explains the mathematical context so that non-mathematicians will also profit from the book. Quod erat demonstrandum!.

Fiction

The System of the World | Neal Stephenson

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The System of the World - Neal Stephenson Preview:

'Tis done. The world is a most confused and unsteady place -- especially London, center of finance, innovation, and conspiracy -- in the year 1714, when Daniel Waterhouse makes his less-than-triumphant return to England's shores. Aging Puritan and Natural Philosopher, confidant of the high and mighty and contemporary of the most brilliant minds of the age, he has braved the merciless sea and an assault by the infamous pirate Blackbeard to help mend the rift between two adversarial geniuses at a princess's behest. But while much has changed outwardly, the duplicity and danger that once drove Daniel to the American Colonies is still coin of the British realm. No sooner has Daniel set foot on his homeland when he is embroiled in a dark conflict that has been raging in the shadows for decades. It is a secret war between the brilliant, enigmatic Master of the Mint and closet alchemist Isaac Newton and his archnemesis, the insidious counterfeiter Jack the Coiner, a.k.a. Jack Shaftoe, King of the Vagabonds. Hostilities are suddenly moving to a new and more volatile level, as Half-Cocked Jack plots a daring assault on the Tower itself, aiming for nothing less than the total corruption of Britain's newborn monetary system. Unbeknownst to all, it is love that set the Coiner on his traitorous course; the desperate need to protect the woman of his heart -- the remarkable Eliza, Duchess of Arcachon-Qwghlm -- from those who would destroy her should he fail. Meanwhile, Daniel Waterhouse and his Clubb of unlikely cronies comb city and country for clues to the identity of the blackguard who is attempting to blow up Natural Philosophers with Infernal Devices -- as political factions jockey for position while awaiting the impending death of the ailing queen; as the "holy grail" of alchemy, the key to life eternal, tantalizes and continues to elude Isaac Newton, yet is closer than he ever imagined; as the greatest technological innovation in history slowly takes shape in Waterhouse's manufactory. Everything that was will be changed forever ... The System of the World is the concluding volume in Neal Stephenson's Baroque Cycle, begun with Quicksilver and continued in The Confusion..

Philosophy

Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science | Matthew Slater,Zanja Yudell

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Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science - Matthew Slater,Zanja Yudell Preview:

The question of the proper role of metaphysics in philosophy of science is both significant and contentious. The last few decades have seen considerable engagement with philosophical projects aptly described as "the metaphysics of science:" inquiries into natural laws and properties, natural kinds, causal relations, and dispositions. At the same time, many metaphysicians have begun moving in the direction of more scientifically-informed ("scientistic" or "naturalistic") metaphysics. And yet many philosophers of science retain a deep suspicion about the significance of metaphysical investigations into science. This volume of new essays explores a broadly methodological question: what role should metaphysics play in our philosophizing about science? These new essays, written by leading philosophers of science, address this question both through ground-level investigations of particular issues in the metaphysics of science and by more general methodological inquiry..

History

The Revolution in Science 1500 - 1750 | A.Rupert Hall

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First published in 1983. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company..

Science

Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics | Robert T. Hanlon

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Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics - Robert T. Hanlon Preview:

At the heart of many fields - physics, chemistry, engineering - lies thermodynamics. While this science plays a critical role in determining the boundary between what is and is not possible in the natural world, it occurs to many as an indecipherable black box, thus making the subject a challenge to learn. Two obstacles contribute to this situation, the first being the disconnect between the fundamental theories and the underlying physics and the second being the confusing concepts and terminologies involved with the theories. While one needn't confront either of these two obstacles to successfully use thermodynamics to solve real problems, overcoming both provides access to a greater intuitive sense of the problems and more confidence, more strength, and more creativity in solving them. This book offers an original perspective on thermodynamic science and history based on the three approaches of a practicing engineer, academician, and historian. The book synthesises and gathers into one accessible volume a strategic range of foundational topics involving the atomic theory, energy, entropy, and the laws of thermodynamics..

Mathematics

A Modern Perspective on Type Theory | F.D. Kamareddine,T. Laan,Rob Nederpelt

A Modern Perspective on Type Theory Pdf/ePub eBook A Modern Perspective on Type Theory Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1162 | Ebook Reads: 1162 | File: A Modern Perspective on Type Theory.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 1402023359

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A Modern Perspective on Type Theory - F.D. Kamareddine,T. Laan,Rob Nederpelt Preview:

This book provides an overview of type theory. The first part of the book is historical, yet at the same time, places historical systems in the modern setting. The second part deals with modern type theory as it developed since the 1940s, and with the role of propositions as types (or proofs as terms. The third part proposes new systems that bring more advantages together..

Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes | A.P. Martinich,Kinch Hoekstra

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The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes - A.P. Martinich,Kinch Hoekstra Preview:

The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes collects twenty-six newly commissioned, original chapters on the philosophy of the English thinker Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Best known today for his important influence on political philosophy, Hobbes was in fact a wide and deep thinker on a diverse range of issues. The chapters included in this Oxford Handbook cover the full range of Hobbes's thought--his philosophy of logic and language; his view of physics and scientific method; his ethics, political philosophy, and philosophy of law; and his views of religion, history, and literature. Several of the chapters overlap in fruitful ways, so that the reader can see the richness and depth of Hobbes's thought from a variety of perspectives. The contributors are experts on Hobbes from many countries, whose home disciplines include philosophy, political science, history, and literature. A substantial introduction places Hobbes's work, and contemporary scholarship on Hobbes, in a broad context..

Social Science

The Roman Military Base at Dura-Europos, Syria | Simon James

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The Roman Military Base at Dura-Europos, Syria - Simon James Preview:

Dura-Europos, a Parthian-ruled Greco-Syrian city, was captured by Rome c.AD165. It then accommodated a Roman garrison until its destruction by Sasanian siege c.AD256. Excavations of the site between the World Wars made sensational discoveries, and with renewed exploration from 1986 to 2011, Dura remains the best-explored city of the Roman East. A critical revelation was a sprawling Roman military base occupying a quarter of the city's interior. This included swathes of civilian housing converted to soldiers' accommodation and several existing sanctuaries, as well as baths, an amphitheatre, headquarters, and more temples added by the garrison. Base and garrison were clearly fundamental factors in the history of Roman Dura, but what impact did they have on the civil population? Original excavators gloomily portrayed Durenes evicted from their homes and holy places, and subjected to extortion and impoverishment by brutal soldiers, while recent commentators have envisaged military-civilian concordia, with shared prosperity and integration. Detailed examination of the evidence presents a new picture. Through the use of GPS, satellite, geophysical and archival evidence, this volume shows that the Roman military base and resident community were even bigger than previously understood, with both military and civil communities appearing much more internally complex than has been allowed until now. The result is a fascinating social dynamic which we can partly reconstruct, giving us a nuanced picture of life in a city near the eastern frontier of the Roman world..

Religion

The Flesh of the Word | K.J. Drake

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The Flesh of the Word - K.J. Drake Preview:

The extra Calvinisticum, the doctrine that the eternal Son maintains his existence beyond the flesh both during his earthly ministry and perpetually, divided the Lutheran and Reformed traditions during the Reformation. This book explores the emergence and development of the extra Calvinisticum in the Reformed tradition by tracing its first exposition from Ulrich Zwingli to early Reformed orthodoxy. Rather than being an ancillary issue, the questions surrounding the extra Calvinisticum were a determinative factor in the differentiation of Magisterial Protestantism into rival confessions. Reformed theologians maintained this doctrine in order to preserve the integrity of both Christ's divine and human natures as the mediator between God and humanity. This rationale remained consistent across this period with increasing elaboration and sophistication to meet the challenges leveled against the doctrine in Lutheran polemics. The study begins with Zwingli's early use of the extra Calvinisticum in the Eucharistic controversy with Martin Luther and especially as the alternative to Luther's doctrine of the ubiquity of Christ's human body. Over time, Reformed theologians, such as Peter Martyr Vermigli and Antione de Chandieu, articulated the extra Calvinisticum with increasing rigor by incorporating conciliar christology, the church fathers, and scholastic methodology to address the polemical needs of engagement with Lutheranism. The Flesh of the Word illustrates the development of christological doctrine by Reformed theologians offering a coherent historical narrative of Reformed christology from its emergence into the period of confessionalization. The extra Calvinisticum was interconnected to broader concerns affecting concepts of the union of Christ's natures, the communication of attributes, and the understanding of heaven..

Science

Schrödinger’s Web | Jonathan P. Dowling

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As the race to build the world’s first quantum computer is coming to an end, the race to build the quantum internet has just started. This book leverages the author’s unique insights into both the Chinese and American quantum programs. It begins with the physics and history of the quantum internet and ends with the latest results in quantum computing and quantum networks. The Chinese quantum Sputnik moment. The U.S. National Quantum Initiative. What’s up with Quantum Computing Supremacy? The Race to Build the Quantum Internet. Where will Quantum Technology be Tomorrow? Written by a renowned quantum physicist, this book is for everyone who is interested in the rapidly advancing field of Quantum Technology — The Second Quantum Revolution. The 2016 launch of the Chinese quantum satellite Mozi was a quantum Sputnik moment. The United States went from thinking it was ten years ahead of the Chinese to the realization that it was ten years behind them. This quantum gap led to the U.S. National Quantum Initiative, launched in 2018. Since then, the race to build the quantum internet has taken off at breakneck speed..

Science

Physical Chemistry | Kenneth S Schmitz

Physical Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Physical Chemistry Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 479 | Ebook Reads: 479 | File: Physical Chemistry.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0128005998

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Physical Chemistry - Kenneth S Schmitz Preview:

The advancements in society are intertwined with the advancements in science. To understand how changes in society occurred, and will continue to change, one has to have a basic understanding of the laws of physics and chemistry. Physical Chemistry: Multidisciplinary Applications in Society examines how the laws of physics and chemistry (physical chemistry) explain the dynamic nature of the Universe and events on Earth, and how these events affect the evolution of society (multidisciplinary applications). The ordering of the chapters reflects the natural flow of events in an evolving Universe: Philosophy of Science, the basis of the view that natural events have natural causes - Cosmology, the origin of everything from the Big Bang to the current state of the Universe - Geoscience, the physics and chemistry behind the evolution of the planet Earth from its birth to the present - Life Science, the molecules and mechanisms of life on Earth - Ecology, the interdependence of all components within the Ecosphere and the Universe - Information Content, emphasis on how words and phrases and framing of issues affect opinions, reliability of sources, and the limitations of knowledge. Addresses the four Ws of science: Why scientists believe Nature works the way it does, Who helped develop the fields of science, What theories of natural processes tell us about the nature of Nature, and Where our scientific knowledge is taking us into the future Gives a historical review of the evolution of science, and the accompanying changes in the philosophy of how science views the nature of the Universe Explores the physics and chemistry of Nature with minimal reliance on mathematics Examines the structure and dynamics of the Universe and our Home Planet Earth Provides a detailed analysis of how humans, as members of the Ecosphere, have influenced, and are continuing to influence, the dynamics of events on the paludarium called Earth Presents underlying science of current political issues that shape the future of humankind Emphasizes how words and phrases and framing of issues can influence the opinions of members of society Makes extensive use of metaphors and everyday experiences to illustrate principles in science and social interactions.

Science

The Invention of Physical Science | M.J. Nye,J. Richards,R. Stuewer

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The Invention of Physical Science - M.J. Nye,J. Richards,R. Stuewer Preview:

Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter. However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century. In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological threads continuing to underpin the epistemology and practice of the physical sciences and mathematics, even while they became disciplinary specialties during the last three centuries. The volume is prefaced by tributes to Erwin N. Hiebert, whose teaching and scholarship have addressed and inspired attention to these issues..

Science

Great Physicists | William H. Cropper

Great Physicists Pdf/ePub eBook Great Physicists Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 613 | Ebook Reads: 613 | File: Great Physicists.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9780199832088

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Great Physicists - William H. Cropper Preview:

Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists, readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way..

History

Companion to the History of Modern Science | G N Cantor,G.N. Cantor,J.R.R. Christie,M.J.S. Hodge,R.C. Olby

Companion to the History of Modern Science Pdf/ePub eBook Companion to the History of Modern Science Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1499 | Ebook Reads: 1499 | File: Companion to the History of Modern Science.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 100010754X

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Companion to the History of Modern Science - G N Cantor,G.N. Cantor,J.R.R. Christie,M.J.S. Hodge,R.C. Olby Preview:

The 67 chapters of this book describe and analyse the development of Western science from 1500 to the present day. Divided into two major sections - 'The Study of the History of Science' and 'Selected Writings in the History of Science' - the volume describes the methods and problems of research in the field and then applies these techniques to a wide range of fields. Areas covered include: * the Copernican Revolution * Genetics * Science and Imperialism * the History of Anthropology * Science and Religion * Magic and Science. The companion is an indispensable resource for students and professionals in History, Philosophy, Sociology and the Sciences as well as the History of Science. It will also appeal to the general reader interested in an introduction to the subject..

Science

Euclid's Window | Leonard Mlodinow

Euclid's Window Pdf/ePub eBook Euclid's Window Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 670 | Ebook Reads: 670 | File: Euclid's Window.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9781439135372

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Euclid's Window - Leonard Mlodinow Preview:

Through Euclid's Window Leonard Mlodinow brilliantly and delightfully leads us on a journey through five revolutions in geometry, from the Greek concept of parallel lines to the latest notions of hyperspace. Here is an altogether new, refreshing, alternative history of math revealing how simple questions anyone might ask about space -- in the living room or in some other galaxy -- have been the hidden engine of the highest achievements in science and technology. Based on Mlodinow's extensive historical research; his studies alongside colleagues such as Richard Feynman and Kip Thorne; and interviews with leading physicists and mathematicians such as Murray Gell-Mann, Edward Witten, and Brian Greene, Euclid's Window is an extraordinary blend of rigorous, authoritative investigation and accessible, good-humored storytelling that makes a stunningly original argument asserting the primacy of geometry. For those who have looked through Euclid's Window, no space, no thing, and no time will ever be quite the same..

Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century | Peter R. Anstey

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The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century comprises twenty-six new essays by leading experts in the field. This unique scholarly resource provides advanced students and scholars with a comprehensive overview of the issues that are informing research on the subject, while at the same time offering new directions for research to take. The volume is ambitious in scope: it covers the whole of the seventeenth century, ranging from Francis Bacon to John Locke and Isaac Newton. The Handbook contains five parts: the introductory Part I examines the state of the discipline and the nature of its practitioners as the century unfolded; Part II discusses the leading natural philosophers and the philosophy of nature, including Bacon, Boyle, and Newton; Part III covers knowledge and the human faculty of the understanding; Part IV explores the leading topics in British moral philosophy from the period; and Part V concerns political philosophy. In addition to dealing with canonical authors and celebrated texts, such as Thomas Hobbes and his Leviathan, the Handbook discusses many less well-known figures and debates from the period, whose importance is only now being appreciated..

Science

The Foundations Of Newtonian Scholarship | Richard H Dalitz,Michael Nauenberg

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The Foundations Of Newtonian Scholarship - Richard H Dalitz,Michael Nauenberg Preview:

Newtonian scholarship has taken great steps forward in the last half-century. The recent completion of critical editions of Newton's mathematical papers and of his scientific correspondence, as well as the publication of the first volume of his optical papers and of variant readings of the Principia in the original Latin, have made most of Newton's scientific work generally available for study and analysis for the first time. This has provided a better understanding of Newton's Principia and Optics especially regarding their origin and interpretation, much of which has remained obscure for several centuries. Some of the new developments and insights are presented in this book by several of the scholars who have made these primary sources accessible, and by others who are using them to elucidate Newton's work. Most of the papers included were presented at the Symposium on the Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship, held at the Royal Society in London in March 1997..

History

The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy | Aaron Garrett

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The Eighteenth century is one of the most important periods in the history of Western philosophy, witnessing philosophical, scientific, and social and political change on a vast scale. In spite of this, there are few single volume overviews of the philosophy of the period as a whole. The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is an authoritative survey and assessment of this momentous period, covering major thinkers, topics and movements in Eighteenth century philosophy. Beginning with a substantial introduction by Aaron Garrett, the thirty-five specially commissioned chapters by an outstanding team of international contributors are organised into seven clear parts: Context and Movements Metaphysics and Understanding Mind, Soul, and Perception Morals and Aesthetics Politics and Society Philosophy in relation to the Arts and Sciences Major Figures. Major topics and themes are explored and discussed, ranging from materialism, free will and personal identity; to the emotions, the social contract, aesthetics, and the sciences, including mathematics and biology. The final section examines in more detail three figures central to the period: Hume, Rousseau and Kant. As such The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is essential reading for all students of the period, both in philosophy and related disciplines such as politics, literature, history and religious studies..

Science

The Birth of Science | Alex Ely Kossovsky

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This book reveals the multi-generational process involved in humanity's first major scientific achievement, namely the discovery of modern physics, and examines the personal lives of six of the intellectual giants involved. It explores the profound revolution in the way of thinking, and in particular the successful refutation of the school of thought inherited from the Greeks, which focused on the perfection and immutability of the celestial world. In addition, the emergence of the scientific method and the adoption of mathematics as the central tool in scientific endeavors are discussed. The book then explores the delicate thread between pure philosophy, grand unifying theories, and verifiable real-life scientific facts. Lastly, it turns to Kepler’s crucial 3rd law and shows how it was derived from a mere six data points, corresponding to the six planets known at the time. Written in a straightforward and accessible style, the book will inform and fascinate all aficionados of science, history, philosophy, and, in particular, astronomy..

Technology & Engineering

State of the Art and Future Trends in Material Modeling | Holm Altenbach,Andreas Öchsner

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This special anniversary book celebrates the success of this Springer book series highlighting materials modeling as the key to developing new engineering products and applications. In this 100th volume of “Advanced Structured Materials”, international experts showcase the current state of the art and future trends in materials modeling, which is essential in order to fulfill the demanding requirements of next-generation engineering tasks..

Philosophy

The Bloomsbury Companion to Locke | S.-J. Savonius-Wroth,Paul Schuurman,Jonathan Walmsley

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The Bloomsbury Companion to Locke - S.-J. Savonius-Wroth,Paul Schuurman,Jonathan Walmsley Preview:

John Locke (1632-1704) was a leading seventeenth-century philosopher and widely considered to be the first of the British Empiricists. One of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, his major works and central ideas have had a significant impact on the development of key areas in political philosophy and epistemology. The Bloomsbury Companion to Locke is a comprehensive and accessible resource to Locke's life and work, his contemporaries and critics, his key concepts and enduring influence. Including more than 80 specially commissioned entries, written by a team of leading experts, topics range from absolutism to toleration, from education to socinianism. The Companion features a series of indispensable research tools including a chronology of Locke's life, an A-Z of his key concepts and synopses of his principal writings. This is an essential resource for anyone working in the fields of Locke Studies and Seventeenth-Century Philosophy..

History

Hadrian's Wall and the End of Empire | Rob Collins

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Hadrian's Wall and the End of Empire - Rob Collins Preview:

There is no synthetic or comprehensive treatment of any late Roman frontier in the English language to date, despite the political and economic significance of the frontiers in the late antique period. Examining Hadrian’s Wall and the Roman frontier of northern England from the fourth century into the Early Medieval period, this book investigates a late frontier in transition from an imperial border zone to incorporation into Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, using both archaeological and documentary evidence. With an emphasis on the late Roman occupation and Roman military, it places the frontier in the broader imperial context. In contrast to other works, Hadrian’s Wall and the End of Empire challenges existing ideas of decline, collapse, and transformation in the Roman period, as well as its impact on local frontier communities. Author Rob Collins analyzes in detail the limitanei, the frontier soldiers of the late empire essential for the successful maintenance of the frontiers, and the relationship between imperial authorities and local frontier dynamics. Finally, the impact of the end of the Roman period in Britain is assessed, as well as the influence that the frontier had on the development of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria..

Fiction

The Last Witchfinder | James Morrow

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Jennet Stearne's father hangs witches for a living in Restoration England. But when she witnesses the unjust and horrifying execution of her beloved aunt Isobel, the precocious child decides to make it her life's mission to bring down the Parliamentary Witchcraft Act. Armed with little save the power of reason, and determined to see justice prevail, Jennet hurls herself into a series of picaresque adventures—traveling from King William's Britain to the fledgling American Colonies to an uncharted island in the Caribbean, braving West Indies pirates, Algonquin Indian captors, the machinations of the Salem Witch Court, and the sensuous love of a young Ben Franklin. For Jennet cannot and must not rest until she has put the last witchfinder out of business..

Science

Particles and Waves | Peter Achinstein

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This volume brings together eleven essays by the distinguished philosopher of science, Peter Achinstein. The unifying theme is the nature of the philosophical problems surrounding the postulation of unobservable entities such as light waves, molecules, and electrons. How, if at all, is it possible to confirm scientific hypotheses about "unobservables"? Achinstein examines this question as it arose in actual scientific practice in three nineteenth-century episodes: the debate between particle and wave theorists of light, Maxwell's kinetic theory of gases, and J.J. Thomson's discovery of the electron. The book contains three parts, each devoted to one of these topics, beginning with an essay presenting the historical background of the episode and an introduction to the philosophical issues. There is an illuminating evaluation of various scientific methodologies, including hypothetico-deductivism, inductivism, and the method of independent warrant which combines features of the first two. Achinstein assesses the philosophical validity of both nineteenth-century and modern answers to questions about unobservables, and presents and defends his own solutions..

Philosophy

The Quantum of Explanation | Randall E. Auxier,Gary L. Herstein

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The Quantum of Explanation - Randall E. Auxier,Gary L. Herstein Preview:

The Quantum of Explanation advances a bold new theory of how explanation ought to be understood in philosophical and cosmological inquiries. Using a complete interpretation of Alfred North Whitehead’s philosophical and mathematical writings and an interpretive structure that is essentially new, Auxier and Herstein argue that Whitehead has never been properly understood, nor has the depth and breadth of his contribution to the human search for knowledge been assimilated by his successors. This important book effectively applies Whitehead’s philosophy to problems in the interpretation of science, empirical knowledge, and nature. It develops a new account of philosophical naturalism that will contribute to the current naturalism debate in both Analytic and Continental philosophy. Auxier and Herstein also draw attention to some of the most important differences between the process theology tradition and Whitehead’s thought, arguing in favor of a Whiteheadian naturalism that is more or less independent of theological concerns. This book offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to Whitehead’s philosophy and is an essential resource for students and scholars interested in American philosophy, the philosophy of mathematics and physics, and issues associated with naturalism, explanation and radical empiricism..

Social Science

The Army of the Roman Republic | Mike Dobson

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The main source of archaeological evidence for Late Roman Republican camps is a complex of installations around the Iberian city of Numantia in Spain, excavated by Adolf Schulten in the early 1900s. This book reassesses Schulten and concludes that much of his interpretation is questionable. Radically different alternative reconstructions making use of recent fieldwork are presented for several of the sites. A discussion of dating evidence leads to alternative dates being offered for some of the camps. To aid interpreting the sites, army organisation and art of encampment for the period of the Numantine Wars is discussed. This study gives added importance to the sites at Numantia, for they not only form the main source of archaeological evidence for Late Republican camps, but provide evidence for the form of camp for both the late manipular army and the early cohort one..

Science

Makers of Western Science | Todd Timmons

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Non-scientists often perceive science as a dry, boring vocation pursued by dry, boring people. Contrary to popular perception, science has actually been the product of fascinating people seeking to explain the world around them. From Galileo’s difficulties with the Inquisition, to the quirkiness of Newton, to the iconic figure that was Einstein, this innovative volume chronicles the history of science using extensive passages from the works of the scientists themselves. Who better to appeal to our common sense concerning the truth of a sun-centered universe than Copernicus himself? Kepler expresses in his own words the way in which he awoke to the revelation of elliptical orbits, and Darwin shares his slowly evolving ideas leading to the theory of natural selection. Part biography, part history, this work reveals the personalities behind the world’s most significant scientific discoveries, providing an interesting new perspective on the human endeavor we call science. Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here..

Philosophy

The Philosophy of the Young Kant | Martin Schonfeld

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The Philosophy of the Young Kant - Martin Schonfeld Preview:

This intellectual biography of Immanuel Kant's early years-- from 1746 when he wrote his first book, to 1766 when he lost his faith in metaphysics --makes an outstanding contribution to Kant scholarship. Schönfeld meticulously examines most of Kant's early works, summarizes their content, and exhibits their shortcomings and strengths. He places the early theories in their historical context and describes the scientific discoveries and philosophical innovations that distinguish Kant's pre-critical works. Schönfeld argues that these works were all aspects of a single project carried out by Kant to reconcile metaphysical and scientific perspectives and combine them into a coherent model of nature..

Science

A Quest for Perspectives | Kameshwar C Wali

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A Quest for Perspectives - Kameshwar C Wali Preview:

This invaluable book presents selected papers of S Chandrasekhar, co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 and a scientific giant well known for his prolific and monumental contributions to astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics. The reader will find here most of Chandrasekhar's articles that led to major developments in various areas of physics and astrophysics. There are also articles of a popular and historical nature, as well as some hitherto unpublished material based on Chandrasekhar's talks at conferences. Each section of the book contains annotations by the editor. Contents: Volume 1:Early Years — The Theory of White Dwarfs and Stellar InteriorsRadiative Transfer, the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky, and the Negative Ion of HydrogenStochastic and Statistical Problems in AstronomyTurbulence and Hydromagnetic Problems in AstrophysicsHydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic StabilityVolume 2:Ellipsoidal Figures of EquilibriumRelativistic Instabilities and Post-Newtonian ApproximationsThe Mathematical Theory of Black Holes — Colliding WavesThe Nonradial Oscillations of Stars in General RelativityMiscellaneous Writings Readership: Researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Keywords:Astrophysics;Cosmology;Astrophysics;Astronomy;Physics;Applied MathematicsReviews: “It is a great pleasure to dip into Kameshwar Wali's rich selection from the works of the great Chandra, and to read Wali's illuminating comments. In addition to the seminal scientific papers, organized by subject, sometimes establishing whole fields of physics and astronomy, and almost bringing them to conclusion, the volumes include more than 300 pages of ‘semi-popular’ articles and talks (some previously unpublished), whose philosophical depth and beauty of expression would alone recommend these ‘selected works’.” Laurie M Brown Northwestern University “Apart from knowing the works of great scientists, students of science should also learn something about the creative process through which these scientists achieved them. In the case of Chandra, these papers give a glimpse into the mind of a highly methodical person who had identified his goals and worked hard and creatively to get there. For such readers Wali has done a commendable job, for which we should be thankful.” Professor Jayant V Narlikar The Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics “… I am glad to find an opportunity to formulate an encouragement to proceed ahead with Chandra's legacy, and my faith in these new directions of astrophysical research. In forthcoming decades, these superb volumes of collected works ought to play an invaluable role.” Anne Magnon CUST-Blaise Pascal University “Wali's choices in these two volumes are a more selective and more interesting subset, picked as much to give a sense of the man as of the science … Chandra's celebrated Reviews of Modern Physics article ‘Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy’ (1943) alone is worth the price of the volume … Fascinating also are the two 1953 papers by Chandra and Enrico Fermi, the writing of which Chandra later remembered as one of the most exciting experiences of his scientific career.” Physics Today “The latter topic contains some fascinating essays and accounts of interdisciplinary lectures.” Mathematical Reviews.

History

End of the Jihad State, The | Khalid Yahya Blankinship

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End of the Jihad State, The - Khalid Yahya Blankinship Preview:

Demonstrates for the first time that the cause of the Umayyad caliphate’s collapse came not just from internal conflict, but from a number of external and concurrent factors that exceeded the caliphate’s capacity to respond..

Philosophy

The Emergence of a Scientific Culture | Stephen Gaukroger

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Why did science emerge in the West and how did scientific values come to be regarded as the yardstick for all other forms of knowledge? Stephen Gaukroger shows just how bitterly the cognitive and cultural standing of science was contested in its early development. Rejecting the traditional picture of secularization, he argues that science in the seventeenth century emerged not in opposition to religion but rather was in many respects driven by it. Moreover, science did not present a unified picture of nature but was an unstable field of different, often locally successful but just as often incompatible, programmes. To complicate matters, much depended on attempts to reshape the persona of the natural philosopher, and distinctive new notions of objectivity and impartiality were imported into natural philosophy, changing its character radically by redefining the qualities of its practitioners. The West's sense of itself, its relation to its past, and its sense of its future, have been profoundly altered since the seventeenth century, as cognitive values generally have gradually come to be shaped around scientific ones. Science has not merely brought a new set of such values to the task of understanding the world and our place in it, but rather has completely transformed the task, redefining the goals of enquiry. This distinctive feature of the development of a scientific culture in the West marks it out from other scientifically productive cultures. In The Emergence of a Scientific Culture, Stephen Gaukroger offers a detailed and comprehensive account of the formative stages of this development—-and one which challenges the received wisdom that science was seen to be self-evidently the correct path to knowledge and that the benefits of science were immediately obvious to the disinterested observer..

Philosophy

The Fate of Place | Edward Casey

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In this imaginative and comprehensive study, Edward Casey, one of the most incisive interpreters of the Continental philosophical tradition, offers a philosophical history of the evolving conceptualizations of place and space in Western thought. Not merely a presentation of the ideas of other philosophers, The Fate of Place is acutely sensitive to silences, absences, and missed opportunities in the complex history of philosophical approaches to space and place. A central theme is the increasing neglect of place in favor of space from the seventh century A.D. onward, amounting to the virtual exclusion of place by the end of the eighteenth century. Casey begins with mythological and religious creation stories and the theories of Plato and Aristotle and then explores the heritage of Neoplatonic, medieval, and Renaissance speculations about space. He presents an impressive history of the birth of modern spatial conceptions in the writings of Newton, Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant and delineates the evolution of twentieth-century phenomenological approaches in the work of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Bachelard, and Heidegger. In the book's final section, Casey explores the postmodern theories of Foucault, Derrida, Tschumi, Deleuze and Guattari, and Irigaray..