Philosophy

The Philosophy Book | ,

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What existed before the Universe was created? Where does self-worth come from? Do the ends always justify the means? The Philosophy Book answers the most profound questions we all have. It is your visual guide to the fundamental nature of existence, society, and how we think. Discover what it means to be free, whether science can predict the future, or how language shapes our thoughts. Learn about the world's greatest philosophers, from Plato and Confucius to modern thinkers such as Chomsky and Derrida and follow charts and timelines that graphically show the progression of ideas and logic. Written in plain English, with concise explanations of branches of philosophy such as metaphysics and ethics, it untangles complicated theories and makes sense of abstract concepts. It is an ideal reference whether you're a student or a general reader, with simple explanations of big ideas, including the four noble truths, the soul, class struggle, moral purpose, and good and evil. If you're curious about the deeper questions in life, The Philosophy Book is both an invaluable reference and illuminating read..

Philosophy

Philosophy | Ayn Rand

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This collection of essays was the last work planned by Ayn Rand before her death in 1982. In it, she summarizes her view of philosophy and deals with a broad spectrum of topics. According to Ayn Rand, the choice we make is not whether to have a philosophy, but which one to have: rational, conscious, and therefore practical; or contradictory, unidentified, and ultimately lethal. Written with all the clarity and eloquence that have placed Ayn Rand’s Objectivist philosophy in the mainstream of American thought, these essays range over such basic issues as education, morality, censorship, and inflation to prove that philosophy is the fundamental force in all our lives..

Philosophy

Environmental Philosophy | Christopher Belshaw

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Environmental Philosophy - Christopher Belshaw Preview:

Beginning with an overview of current concerns, Belshaw locates our attitudes toward the environment within their cultural and historical milieu. He then examines the various positions in detail, ranging from the moderate view that we ought to consider not only ourselves but also other animals, to the seemingly more extravagant contention that non-sentient life, rocks, deserts B indeed all of the processes of nature B should be considered intrinsically valuable. In later chapters Belshaw explores the importance of an aesthetic response to the environment, opening the way for a human-centred position that is both more generous and more flexible than those often advanced elsewhere. In contrast to many of its competitors, Environmental Philosophy challenges accepted dichotomies B man/nature, instrumental/intrinsic, green/non-green B and advocates conciliation rather than confrontation. Although the arguments are rigorous, the writing is clear and non-technical, making Environmental Philosophy an excellent survey for those engaging with these issues for the first time, as well as offering much to challenge the more advanced student..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Gadamer | Jean Grondin,Kathryn Plant

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Philosophy of Gadamer - Jean Grondin,Kathryn Plant Preview:

Grondin situates Gadamer's concerns in the context of traditional philosophical issues, showing, for example, how Gadamer both continues and significantly modifies Descartes' approach to the philosophical problem of method and advances rather than simply follows Heidegger's treatment of the relationship of thinking to language. In doing this Grondin shows that the issues of philosophical hermeneutics are relevant to contemporary concerns in science and history..

Philosophy

Political Philosophy | Dudley Knowles

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Political Philosophy - Dudley Knowles Preview:

In outlining the central problems of political philosophy, Knowles introduces the ideas of key thinkers, including Hobbes, Locke, Marx, and Mill, and influential contemporary theorists such as Berlin, Rawls, and Nozick. He discusses how to do political philosophy through a detailed examination of utilitarianism, exemplifying a commitment to the liberal practice of rational enquiry. Written in an easily readable style, Political Philosophy will be of interest general readers as well as to students and teachers of philosophy and political theory..

Education

Philosophy of Foucault | Todd May

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Michel Foucault's historical and philosophical investigations have gone through many phases, the archaeological, the genealogical, and the ethical among them. What remains constant is that Foucault never stops asking the question of who we are and how we came to be that way. Following Foucault's itinerary from his early history of madness to his recently published Collège de France lectures, Todd May shows that the question of who we are, while changing, remains always at or just below the surface of Foucault's writings. In so doing he offers students an immediately engaging and perceptive way to understand Foucault. The Philosophy of Foucault is an accessible and stimulating introduction that will be welcomed by students studying Foucault as part of politics, sociology, and history courses as well as within philosophy..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Schopenhauer | Dale Jacquette

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Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) crafted one of the most unified philosophical systems by synthesizing Plato, Kant, and Asian religious traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism into an encyclopedic worldview that combines the empirical science of his day with Eastern mysticism in a radically idealist metaphysics and epistemology. In The Philosophy of Schopenhauer, Dale Jacquette assesses Schopenhauer's philosophical enterprise and the astonishing implications it has for metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, logic, science, and religion. Jacquette analyses the central topics in Schopenhauer's philosophy, including his so-called pessimistic appraisal of the human condition, his examination of the concept of death, his dualistic analysis of free will, and his simplified non-Kantian theory of morality. His metaphysics of the world as representation and Will - his most important and controversial contribution - is discussed in depth. The legacy of Schopenhauer's ideas, in particular his influence on Nietzsche, who was first a follower and then an arch opponent, and the early Wittgenstein, is explored in the final chapter. This introduction makes even the most difficult of Schopenhauer's ideas accessible without sacrificing any of their complexity..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Habermas | Andrew Edgar

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In The Philosophy of Habermas Andrew Edgar covers the full range of Habermas's ideas from his early work on student politics, the public sphere, and the development of Marxist theory to his current work on communicative action, ethics, and law. Edgar examines Habermas's key texts in chronological order and charts and assesses the continuities and discontinuities in his thought, both in terms of subject matter and methodology. He also identifies Habermas's unfulfilled potential, or unresolved challenges remaining from earlier projects, highlighting those points in Habermas's career where clear choices of direction have been made and their implications evaluated. Each chapter focuses on one or more key texts and can therefore be read as a self-standing essay on that key reading and the point that it represents in Habermas's development. However, material in each chapter also serves to identify the links between Habermas's texts and to give shape to Habermas's broader project. Some of the themes that are examined are Habermas's early reshaping of Marxist theory and practice, his characterization of critical theory, his conception of universal pragmatics, his theories of communicative action and discourse ethics, his accounts of the rationalization and colonisation of the lifeworld and his defence of the project of modernity. Edgar engages with Habermas's critics throughout and contrasts his views with the ideas of contemporaries such as Adorno, Gadamer, Foucault, Rawls, Luhmann and Rorty to give a clear sense of Habermas's place and importance in contemporary philosophy and social theory..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Music | R.A. Sharpe

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Philosophy of Music - R.A. Sharpe Preview:

In a lively and engaging introduction to the aesthetics of music and the issues that illuminate musical listening, understanding, and practice, R. A. Sharpe guides the reader through three key questions: What is the work of music? Can music have meaning? Can music have value? He anchors his discussion to examples from Western classical music and jazz and places it in the context of the historical background and philosophical thinking on music from the Ancient Greeks to Eduard Hanslick and Edmund Gurney. Accounts of the philosophy of music often present it as a branch of metaphysics, raising questions about sounds, tones, and musical movement. Sharpe's non-technical treatment is problem-orientated and the questions he raises are about the value of music, the individuality of our assessments, and the way we prize music for its power to move us. He argues that when it comes to music philosophical analysis has its limitations and it is no surprise that there are contradictions in the aesthetics of music or that our judgements about its value are not internally consistent..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Merleau-Ponty | Eric Matthews

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In this clear and comprehensive account of Merleau-Ponty's thought Eric Matthews shows how Merleau-Ponty has contributed to current debates in philosophy, such as the nature of consciousness, the relation between biology and personality, the historical understanding of human thought and society, and many others. Surveying the whole range of Merleau-Ponty's thinking, Matthews examines his views about the nature of phenomenology and the primacy of perception; his account of human embodiment, being-in-the-world, and the understanding of human behaviour; his conception of the self and its relation to other selves; and his views on society, politics, and the arts. A final chapter considers his later thought, published posthumously. The ideas of Merleau-Ponty are of immensely important to the development of modern French philosophy. Matthews evaluates his distinctive contributions and relates his thought to that of his predecessors, contemporaries, and successors, both in France and elsewhere. This unrivalled introduction will be welcomed by analytic philosophers and cognitive scientists as well as all students taking courses in contemporary continental philosophy..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Nietzsche | Rex Welshon

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Nietzsche's influence upon European philosophy has been, and continues to be, profound. Indeed, recent years have seen Nietzsche scholarship become the battleground for debates over philosophical method between the analytic and continental traditions. This fresh introduction to Nietzsche's philosophical work provides students new to Nietzsche with an excellent framework for understanding the central concerns of his philosophical and cultural writings and why Nietzsche's ideas continue to spark controversy in philosophy and in allied disciplines. The book is divided into three parts. In the first section "Nietzsche Against the Tradition", the author shows why Nietzsche rejects wholesale certain components of the Western philosophical and religious traditions and examines the implications of rejecting them. Those components are considered under the headings of morality, religion and nihilism. In the second part "Nietzsche and the Tradition", the author explores Nietzsche's ambivalent and sophisticated reflections on some of the central topics in the Western philosophical tradition. These include Nietzsche's criticisms of metaphysics, his analysis of truth and knowledge, and his reflections on the self and consciousness. In the final section "Nietzsche Beyond the Tradition", Welshon discusses some of the ways in which Nietzsche does, or is thought to, transcend the Western philosophical tradition with chapters on the will to power, politics and education, artistry and the flourishing life. The book provides readers with balanced, clear analysis and is ideally suited as a companion resource for students tackling Nietzsche's challenging prose style..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Kierkegaard | George Pattison

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Philosophy of Kierkegaard - George Pattison Preview:

Although the ideas of Søren Kierkegaard played a pivotal role in shaping mainstream German philosophy and French existentialism, the question of how philosophers should read Kierkegaard is difficult. His intransigent religiosity has led some philosophers to view him essentially as a religious thinker with an anti-philosophical attitude. In a major new survey of Kierkegaard's thought, George Pattison addresses this question and shows that although it would be difficult to claim a "philosophy of Kierkegaard" as one can a philosophy of Kant or Hegel, there are significant common interests in Kierkegaard's central thinking and the questions that concern philosophers today. The Philosophy of Kierkegaard examines existence, anxiety, the good, and the infinite qualitative difference and the absolute paradox, arguing that the challenge of self-knowledge in an age of moral and intellectual uncertainty which lies at the heart of Kierkegaard's writings is as important today as it was in the culture of post-Enlightenment modernity..

Philosophy

Philosophy of Nature | Brian Ellis

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For many years essentialism was considered beyond the pale in philosophy, a relic of discredited Aristotelianism. This is no longer so. Kripke and Putnam have made belief in essential natures respectable once more. Harré and Madden have argued against Hume's theory of causation and developed an alternative theory based on the assumption that there are genuine causal powers in nature. Dretske, Tooley, Armstrong, Swoyer, and Carroll have all developed strong alternatives to Hume's theory of the laws of nature. And Shoemaker has developed a thoroughly non-Humean theory of properties. The "new essentialism" has evolved from these beginnings and can now reasonably claim to be a metaphysic for a modern scientific understanding of the world - one that challenges the conception of the world as comprising passive entities whose interactions are to be explained by appeal to contingent laws of nature externally imposed..

Philosophy

Story of Philosophy | Will Durant

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Story of Philosophy - Will Durant Preview:

A brilliant and concise account of the lives and ideas of the great philosophers—Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Spinoza, Voltaire, Kant, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Nietzsche, Bergson, Croce, Russell, Santayana, James, and Dewey—The Story of Philosophy is one of the great books of our time. Few write for the non-specialist as well as Will Durant, and this book is a splendid example of his eminently readable scholarship. Durant’s insight and wit never cease to dazzle; The Story of Philosophy is a key book for any reader who wishes to survey the history and development of philosophical ideas in the Western world..

Philosophy

The Philosophy of the Young Kant | Martin Schonfeld

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The Philosophy of the Young Kant - Martin Schonfeld Preview:

This intellectual biography of Immanuel Kant's early years-- from 1746 when he wrote his first book, to 1766 when he lost his faith in metaphysics --makes an outstanding contribution to Kant scholarship. Schönfeld meticulously examines most of Kant's early works, summarizes their content, and exhibits their shortcomings and strengths. He places the early theories in their historical context and describes the scientific discoveries and philosophical innovations that distinguish Kant's pre-critical works. Schönfeld argues that these works were all aspects of a single project carried out by Kant to reconcile metaphysical and scientific perspectives and combine them into a coherent model of nature..

Literary Criticism

Thoreau's Importance for Philosophy | Rick Anthony Furtak,Jonathan Ellsworth,James D. Reid

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Thoreau's Importance for Philosophy - Rick Anthony Furtak,Jonathan Ellsworth,James D. Reid Preview:

Although Henry David Thoreau's best-known book, Walden, is admired as a classic work of American literature, it has not yet been widely recognized as an important philosophical text. In fact, many academic philosophers would be reluctant to classify Thoreau as a philosopher at all. The purpose of this volume is to remedy this neglect, to explain Thoreau's philosophical significance, and to argue that we can still learn from his polemical conception of philosophy.Thoreau sought to establish philosophy as a way of life and to root our philosophical, conceptual affairs in more practical or existential concerns. His work provides us with a sustained meditation on the importance of leading our lives with integrity, avoiding what he calls "quiet desperation." The contributors to this volume approach Thoreau's writings from different angles. They explore his aesthetic views, his naturalism, his theory of self, his ethical principles, and his political stances. Most importantly, they show how Thoreau returns philosophy to its roots as the love of wisdom..

Religion

A History of Western Philosophy | C. Stephen Evans

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A History of Western Philosophy - C. Stephen Evans Preview:

Plato. Aristotle. Augustine. Hume. Kant. Hegel. Every student of philosophy needs to know the history of the philosophical discourse such giants have bequeathed us. Philosopher C. Stephen Evans brings his expertise to this daunting task as he surveys the history of Western philosophy, from the Pre-Socratics to Nietzsche and postmodernism—and every major figure and movement in between..

Philosophy

African Philosophy | Paulin J. Hountondji

African Philosophy Pdf/ePub eBook African Philosophy Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 587 | Ebook Reads: 587 | File: African Philosophy.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9780253210968

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Hountondji contends that ideological manifestations of this view that stress the uniqueness of the African experience are protonationalist reactions against colonialism conducted, paradoxically, in the terms of colonialist discourse. Hountondji argues that a genuine African philosophy must assimilate and transcend the theoretical heritage of Western philosophy and must reflect a rigorous process of independent scientific inquiry..

Philosophy

A New History of Western Philosophy | Anthony Kenny

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A New History of Western Philosophy - Anthony Kenny Preview:

This book is no less than a guide to the whole of Western philosophy -- the ideas that have undergirded our civilization for two-and-a-half thousand years. Anthony Kenny tells the story of philosophy from ancient Greece through the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment into the modern world. He introduces us to the great thinkers and their ideas, starting with Plato, Aristotle, and the other founders of Western thought. In the second part of the book he takes us through a thousand years of medieval philosophy, and shows us the rich intellectual legacy of Christian thinkers like Augustine, Aquinas, and Ockham. Moving into the early modern period, we explore the great works of Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Leibniz, Spinoza, Hume, and Kant, which remain essential reading today. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Hegel, Mill, Nietzsche, Freud, and Wittgenstein again transformed the way we see the world. Running though the book are certain themes which have been constant concerns of philosophy since its early beginnings: the fundamental questions of what exists and how we can know about it; the nature of humanity, the mind, truth, and meaning; the place of God in the universe; how we should live and how society should be ordered. Anthony Kenny traces the development of these themes through the centuries: we see how the questions asked and answers offered by the great philosophers of the past remain vividly alive today. Anyone interested in ideas and their history will find this a fascinating and stimulating read.

Philosophy

The Philosophy of History | Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

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The Philosophy of History - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Preview:

One of the great classics of Western thought develops concept that history is not chance but a rational process, operating according to the laws of evolution, and embodying the spirit of freedom..