Technology & Engineering

Mesoscopic Physics and Electronics | Tsuneya Ando,Yasuhiko Arakawa,Kazuhito Furuya,Susumu Komiyama,Hisao Nakashima

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Semiconductor technology has developed considerably during the past several decades. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power has been achieved by a constant scaling down of integrated cir,cuits. Smaller fea ture sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. One key ingredient of the LSI technology is the development of the lithog raphy and microfabrication. The current minimum feature size is already as small as 0.2 /tm, beyond the limit imposed by the wavelength of visible light and rapidly approaching fundamental limits. The next generation of devices is highly likely to show unexpected properties due to quantum effects and fluctuations. The device which plays an important role in LSIs is MOSFETs (metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). In MOSFETs an inversion layer is formed at the interface of silicon and its insulating oxide. The inversion layer provides a unique two-dimensional (2D) system in which the electron concentration is controlled almost freely over a very wide range. Physics of such 2D systems was born in the mid-1960s together with the development of MOSFETs. The integer quantum Hall effect was first discovered in this system..

Science

Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport | ,

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The developments of nanofabrication in the past years have enabled the design of electronic systems that exhibit spectacular signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small number of electrons are ideal experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interplay with disorder. Going down to even smaller scales, molecules such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of transport through a single chain of atoms have been performed as well. Much progress has also been made in the design and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then no longer that of individual electronic states, but rather that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic number of Cooper pairs condensed in the same quantum mechanical state. Beyond the study of linear response regime, the physics of non-equilibrium transport (including non-linear transport, rectification of a high frequency electric field as well as shot noise) has received much attention, with significant experimental and theoretical insights. All these quantities exhibit very specific signatures of the quantum nature of transport, which cannot be obtained from basic conductance measurements. Basic concepts and analytical tools needed to understand this new physics are presented in a series of theoretical fundamental courses, in parallel with more phenomenological ones where physics is discussed in a less formal way and illustrated by many experiments. · Electron-electron interactions in one-dimensional quantum transport · Coulomb Blockade and Kondo physics in quantum dots · Out of equilibrium noise and quantum transport · Andreev reflection and subgap nonlinear transport in hybrid N/S nanosructures. · Transport through atomic contacts · Solid state Q-bits · Written by leading experts in the field, both theorists and experimentalists.

Science

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics | Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

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Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics - Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo Preview:

This book contains lecture notes by world experts on one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in physics. Topological quantum phenomena are being uncovered at unprecedented rates in novel material systems. The consequences are far reaching, from the possibility of carrying currents and performing computations without dissipation of energy, to the possibility of realizing platforms for topological quantum computation.The pedagogical lectures contained in this book are an excellent introduction to this blooming field. The lecture notes are intended for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics who want to immerse in this exciting XXI century physics topic. This Les Houches Summer School presents an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its placement on the map of fundamental physics advancements. The School comprised a set of basic lectures (part 1) aimed at a pedagogical introduction of the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (part 2) covering individual topics at the forefront of today's research in condensed-matter physics..

Science

Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School | Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio

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The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics.On the one hand it included lectures on quantum information, quantum open systems, quantum transport and quantum solid state. On the other hand it included lectures on quantum measurement, models for elementary particles, sub-quantum structures and aspects on the philosophy and principles of quantum physics.The special program of this school offered a broad outlook on the current and near future fundamental research in theoretical physics.The lectures are at the level of PhD students..

Science

From Atomic to Mesoscale | Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova

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This volume presents the latest advancements and future developments of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and its vital role in modern sciences and technologies. The chapters are devoted to studies of a wide range of quantum systems, with an emphasis on understanding of quantum coherence and other quantum phenomena originated from light-matter interactions. The book intends to survey the current research landscape and to highlight major scientific trends in AMO physics as well as those interfacing with interdisciplinary sciences. The volume may be particularly useful for young researchers working on establishing their scientific interests and goals. Contents:Collective Phenomena and Long-Range Interactions in Ultracold Atoms and Molecules:Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Molecules (M L Wall, K R A Hazzard and A M Rey)Optical Manipulation of Light Scattering in Cold Atomic Rubidium (R G Olave, A L Win, K Kemp, S J Roof, S Balik, M D Havey, I M Sokolov and D V Kupriyanov)Seeing Spin Dynamics in Atomic Gases (D M Stamper-Kurn)Atom-like Coherent Solid State Systems:Precision Magnetic Sensing and Imaging Using NV-Diamond (R L Walsworth)Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots (A P Burgers, J R Schaibley and D G Steel)Coherent Nanophotonics and Plasmonics:Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials (M Y Shalaginov, S Bogdanov, V V Vorobyov, A S Lagutchev, A V Kildishev, A V Akimov, A Boltassevaand V M Shalaev)Linear Optical Properties of Periodic Hybrid Materials at Oblique Incidence: A Numerical Approach (A Blake and M Sukharev)Fundamental Physics:An Introduction to Boson-Sampling (B T Gard, K R Motes, J P Olson, P P Rohde and J P Dowling)New Approach to Quantum Amplification by Superradiant Emission of Radiation (G Shchedrin, Y Rostovtsev, X Zhang and M O Scully)Ultrafast Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields:Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism (A D Bandrauk and K-J Yuan)Many-Electron Response of Gas-Phase Fullerene Materials to Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Photons (H S Chakraborty and M Magrakvelidze)Ultracold Chemistry:Collisions and Reactions in Ultracold Gases (N Balakrishnan and J Hazra) Readership: For professional researchers as well as young academics in the field of Atomic, Molecular and Optical (AMO) physics. Key Features:The contributors for this volume are all internationally recognized experts in their fieldsThis book offers a unique overview of the state of current AMO physics, while outlining future directions. No comparable titles have been identified so far (by editors or by reviewers)All contributions include new unpublished research, and will be of interest for anyone pursuing the scientific investigations in the presented areasKeywords:Quantum Coherence;Amo;Atomic Physics;Quantum Control;Ultracold Atoms;Ultracold Molecules;Nv-diamonds;Quantum Dots;Quantum Magnetism;Nanophotonics;Plasmonics;Ultrafast Dynamics;Ultracold Chemistry.

Science

Optical Properties of Photonic Structures | Mikhail F. Limonov,Richard M. De La Rue

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The collection of articles in this book offers a penetrating shaft into the still burgeoning subject of light propagation and localization in photonic crystals and disordered media. While the subject has its origins in physics, it has broad significance and applicability in disciplines such as engineering, chemistry, mathematics, and medicine. Unlike other branches of physics, where the phenomena under consideration require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, energy, or isolation from competing effects, the phenomena related to light localization survive under the most ordinary of conditions. This provides the science described in this book with broad applicability and vitality. However, the greatest challenge to the further development of this field is in the reliable and inexpensive synthesis of materials of the required composition, architecture and length scale, where the proper balance between order and disorder is realized. Similar challenges have been faced and overcome in fields such as semiconductor science and technology. The challenge of photonic crystal synthesis has inspired a variety of novel fabrication protocols such as self-assembly and optical interference lithography that offer much less expensive approaches than conventional semiconductor microlithography. Once these challenges are fully met, it is likely that light propagation and localization in photonic microstructures will be at the heart of a 21st-century revolution in science and technology. —From the Introduction, Sajeev John, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada One of the first books specifically focused on disorder in photonic structures, Optical Properties of Photonic Structures: Interplay of Order and Disorder explores how both order and disorder provide the key to the different regimes of light transport and to the systematic localization and trapping of light. Collecting contributions from leaders of research activity in the field, the book covers many important directions, methods, and approaches. It describes various one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures, including opals, aperiodic Fibonacci-type photonic structures, photonic amorphous structures, photonic glasses, Lévy glasses, and hypersonic, magnetophotonic, and plasmonic–photonic crystals with nanocavities, quantum dots, and lasing action. The book also addresses practical applications in areas such as optical communications, optical computing, laser surgery, and energy..

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Pushing the Frontiers of Atomic Physics | ,

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Technology & Engineering

Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect | Francesco Tafuri

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This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the Josephson effect, a topic of never-ending interest in both fundamental and applied physics. In this volume, world-renowned experts present the unique aspects of the physics of the Josephson effect, resulting from the use of new materials, of hybrid architectures and from the possibility of realizing nanoscale junctions. These new experimental capabilities lead to systems where novel coherent phenomena and transport processes emerge. All this is of great relevance and impact, especially when combined with the didactic approach of the book. The reader will benefit from a general and modern view of coherent phenomena in weakly-coupled superconductors on a macroscopic scale. Topics that have been only recently discussed in specialized papers and in short reviews are described here for the first time and organized in a general framework. An important section of the book is also devoted to applications, with focus on long-term, future applications. In addition to a significant number of illustrations, the book includes numerous tables for comparative studies on technical aspects..

Science

Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy | Frank Schlawin

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This thesis focuses on nonlinear spectroscopy from a quantum optics perspective. First, it provides a detailed introduction to nonlinear optical signals; starting from Glauber’s photon counting formalism, it establishes the diagrammatic formulation, which forms the backbone of nonlinear molecular spectroscopy. The main body of the thesis investigates the impact of quantum correlations in entangled photon states on two-photon transitions, with a particular focus on the time-energy uncertainty, which restricts the possible simultaneous time and frequency resolution in measurements. It found that this can be violated with entangled light for individual transitions. The thesis then presents simulations of possible experimental setups that could exploit this quantum advantage. The final chapter is devoted to an application of the rapidly growing field of multidimensional spectroscopy to trapped ion chains, where it is employed to investigate nonequilibrium properties in quantum simulations..

Science

Progress in Optics | ,

Progress in Optics Pdf/ePub eBook Progress in Optics Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1805 | Ebook Reads: 1805 | File: Progress in Optics.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0080879314

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Progress in Optics - , Preview:

In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. Backscattering and Anderson localization of light Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification Invisibility cloaks.

Science

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics | Noëlle Pottier

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While systems at equilibrium are treated in a unified manner through the partition function formalism, the statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems covers a large variety of situations that are often without apparent connection. This book proposes a unified perspective on the whole set of systems near equilibrium: it brings out the profound unity of the laws which govern them and gathers together a large number of results usually fragmented in the literature. The reader will find in this book a pedagogical account of the fundamental results: physical origins of irreversibility, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Boltzmann equation, linear response, Onsager relations, transport phenomena, Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The book's comprehensive organization makes it valuable both as a textbook about irreversible phenomena and as a reference book for researchers..

Science

Functional Surfaces in Biology III | Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb

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This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular functions. This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various biological surface functions: sensing, coloration, attachment, drag reduction, moisture harvesting, etc. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering. This volume together with two previous volumes “Functional Surfaces in Biology” (vols. 1 & 2 published in 2009) taken together, present a good reference for a novice in the field. The book is intended for use by researchers who are active, or intend to become active, in the field. The appeal of this topic is expected to be broad, ranging from classical biology, biomechanics and physics to such applied fields as materials science and surface engineering..

Technology & Engineering

Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics | Paolo Bettotti

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Photonics and electronics are endlessly converging into a single technology by exploiting the possibilities created by nanostructuring of materials and devices. It is expected that next-generation optoelectronic devices will show great improvements in terms of performance, flexibility, and energy consumption: the main limits of nanoelectronics will be overcome by using a photonics approach, while nanophotonics will become a mature technology, thanks to miniaturization strategies developed in microelectronics. Mastering such a complex subject requires a multidisciplinary approach and a solid knowledge of several topics. This book gives a broad overview of recent advances in several topical aspects of nanophotonics and nanoelectronics, keeping an eye on real applications of such technologies, and focuses on the possibilities created by advanced photon management strategies in optoelectronic devices. Starting from pure photonic systems, the book provides several examples in which the interaction between photonics and electronics is exploited to achieve faster, compact, and more efficient devices. A large number of figures and tables also support each chapter. This book constitutes a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and professionals working on the development of optoelectronics..

Technology & Engineering

Optics of Aperiodic Structures | Luca Dal Negro

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This book presents state-of-the-art contributions from a number of leading experts that actively work worldwide in the rapidly growing, highly interdisciplinary, and fascinating fields of aperiodic optics and complex photonics. Edited by Luca Dal Negro, a prominent researcher in these areas of optical science, the book covers the fundamental, computational, and experimental aspects of deterministic aperiodic structures, as well as numerous device and engineering applications to dense optical filters, nanoplasmonics photovoltaics and technologies, optical sensing, light sources, and nonlinear optics..

Technology & Engineering

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures | Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures Pdf/ePub eBook Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1010 | Ebook Reads: 1010 | File: Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 1786343045

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Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures - Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard Preview:

This book is an introduction to quantum states and of their scattering in semiconductor nanostructures. Written with exercises and detailed solutions, it is designed to enable readers to start modelling actual electron states and scattering in nanostructures. It first looks at practical aspects of quantum states and emphasises the variational and perturbation approaches. Following this there is analysis of quasi two-dimensional materials, including discussion of the eigenstates of nanostructures, scattering mechanisms and their numerical results. Focussing on practical applications, this book moves away from standard discourse on theory and provides students of physics, nanotechnology and materials science with the opportunity to fully understand the electronic properties of nanostructures. Contents:Practical Quantum Mechanics:Schrödinger EquationBound and Extended StatesApproximate MethodsLandau Quantisation of Electron Motion in Ideal Semiconductor Bulks and HeterostructuresThe Physics of Heterostructures:Background on HeterostructuresElectrons States in NanostructuresBeyond the Ideal WorldScreening at the Semi-Classical ApproximationResults for Static ScatterersResults for Electron-Phonon InteractionBeyond the Born ApproximationExercises Readership: Students of physics, nanoscience and materials science, professionals working with nanomaterials, and researchers..

Mathematics

Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II | David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen

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Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II - David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen Preview:

This volume contains the proceedings from three conferences: the PISRS 2011 International Conference on Analysis, Fractal Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Economics, held November 8-12, 2011 in Messina, Italy; the AMS Special Session on Fractal Geometry in Pure and Applied Mathematics, in memory of Benoît Mandelbrot, held January 4-7, 2012, in Boston, MA; and the AMS Special Session on Geometry and Analysis on Fractal Spaces, held March 3-4, 2012, in Honolulu, HI. Articles in this volume cover fractal geometry and various aspects of dynamical systems in applied mathematics and the applications to other sciences. Also included are articles discussing a variety of connections between these subjects and various areas of physics, engineering, computer science, technology, economics and finance, as well as of mathematics (including probability theory in relation with statistical physics and heat kernel estimates, geometric measure theory, partial differential equations in relation with condensed matter physics, global analysis on non-smooth spaces, the theory of billiards, harmonic analysis and spectral geometry). The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 600) focuses on the more mathematical aspects of fractal geometry and dynamical systems..

Science

Topological Insulators | Gregory Tkachov

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This book is the result of dynamic developments that have occurred in condensed matter physics after the recent discovery of a new class of electronic materials: topological insulators. A topological insulator is a material that behaves as a band insulator in its interior, while acting as a metallic conductor at its surface. The surface current carriers in these systems have Dirac-like nature and are protected by an intrinsic topological order, which is of great interest for both fundamental research and emerging technologies, especially in the fields of electronics, spintronics, and quantum information. The realization of the application potential of topological insulators requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of transport processes in these novel materials. This book explores the origin of the protected Dirac-like states in topological insulators and gives an insight into some of their representative transport properties. These include the quantum spin–Hall effect, nonlocal edge transport, backscattering of helical edge and surface states, weak antilocalization, unconventional triplet p-wave superconductivity, topological bound states, and emergent Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions as well as superconducting Klein tunneling..

Science

Parity-time Symmetry and Its Applications | Demetrios Christodoulides,Jianke Yang

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This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental advances in linear and nonlinear parity-time-symmetric systems in various physical disciplines, and surveys the emerging applications of parity-time (PT) symmetry. PT symmetry originates from quantum mechanics, where if the Schrodinger operator satisfies the PT symmetry, then its spectrum can be all real. This concept was later introduced into optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, metamaterials, electric circuits, acoustics, mechanical systems and many other fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a PT-symmetric system. Even though these systems are dissipative, they exhibit many signature properties of conservative systems, which make them mathematically and physically intriguing. Important PT-symmetry applications have also emerged. This book describes the latest advances of PT symmetry in a wide range of physical areas, with contributions from the leading experts. It is intended for researchers and graduate students to enter this research frontier, or use it as a reference book..

Technology & Engineering

Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes) | ,

Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes) Pdf/ePub eBook Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes) Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1948 | Ebook Reads: 1948 | File: Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes).pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9813270187

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Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes) - , Preview:

The five-volume set may serve as a comprehensive reference on electromagnetic analysis and its applications at all frequencies, from static fields to optics and photonics. The material includes micro- and nanomagnetics, the new generation of electric machines, renewable energy, hybrid vehicles, low-noise motors; antennas and microwave devices, plasmonics, metamaterials, lasers, and more.Written at a level accessible to both graduate students and engineers, Electromagnetic Analysis is a comprehensive reference, covering methods and applications at all frequencies (from statics to optical). Each volume contains pedagogical/tutorial material of high archival value as well as chapters on state-of-the-art developments..

Science

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science | Yehuda B. Band,Yshai Avishai

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Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information theory, decoherence and dissipation, and on applications to nanotechnology, including quantum dots, wires and wells. This book provides a novel approach to Quantum Mechanics whilst also giving readers the requisite background and training for the scientists and engineers of the 21st Century who need to come to grips with quantum phenomena The fundamentals of quantum theory are provided within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology Older books on quantum mechanics do not contain the amalgam of ideas, concepts and tools necessary to prepare engineers and scientists to deal with the new facets of quantum mechanics and their application to quantum information science and nanotechnology As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today There are many excellent quantum mechanics books available, but none have the emphasis on nanotechnology and quantum information science that this book has.

Technology & Engineering

Advanced 2D Materials | Ashutosh Tiwari,Mikael Syväjärvi

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This book brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and developments of Advanced 2D Materials. Well-known worldwide researchers deliberate subjects on (1) Synthesis, characterizations, modeling and properties, (2) State-of-the-art design and (3) innovative uses of 2D materials including: Two-dimensional layered gallium selenide Synthesis of 2D boron nitride nanosheets The effects of substrates on 2-D crystals Electrical conductivity and reflectivity of models of some 2D materials Graphene derivatives in semicrystalline polymer composites Graphene oxide based multifunctional composites Covalent and non-covalent polymer grafting of graphene oxide Graphene-semiconductor hybrid photocatalysts for solar fuels Graphene based sensors Graphene composites from bench to clinic Photocatalytic ZnO-graphene hybrids Hydroxyapatite-graphene bioceramics in orthopaedic applications.

Technology & Engineering

Confined Electrons and Photons | Elias Burstein,Claude Weisbuch

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The optical properties of semiconductors have played an important role since the identification of semiconductors as "small" bandgap materials in the thinies, due both to their fundamental interest as a class of solids baving specific optical propenies and to their many important applications. On the former aspect we can cite the fundamental edge absorption and its assignment to direct or indirect transitions, many-body effects as revealed by exciton formation and photoconductivity. On the latter aspect, large-scale applications sucb as LEDs and lasers, photovoltaic converters, photodetectors, electro-optics and non-linear optic devices, come to mind. The eighties saw a revitalization of the whole field due to the advent of heterostructures of lower-dimensionality, mainly two-dimensional quantum wells, which through their enhanced photon-matter interaction yielded new devices with unsurpassed performance. Although many of the basic phenomena were evidenced through the seventies, it was this impact on applications which in turn led to such a massive investment in fabrication tools, thanks to which many new structures and materials were studied, yielding funher advances in fundamental physics..

Science

Ultracold Gases and Quantum Information | Christian Miniatura,Leong-Chuan Kwek,Martial Ducloy,BenoÎt Grémaud,Berthold-Georg Englert,Leticia Cugliandolo,Artur Ekert,Kok Khoo Phua

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Ultracold Gases and Quantum Information - Christian Miniatura,Leong-Chuan Kwek,Martial Ducloy,BenoÎt Grémaud,Berthold-Georg Englert,Leticia Cugliandolo,Artur Ekert,Kok Khoo Phua Preview:

In recent years, there has been much synergy between the exciting areas of quantum information science and ultracold atoms. This volume, as part of the proceedings for the XCI session of Les Houches School of Physics (held for the first time outside Europe in Singapore) brings together experts in both fields. The theme of the school focused on two principal topics: quantum information science and ultracold atomic physics. The topics range from Bose Einstein Condensates to Degenerate Fermi Gases to fundamental concepts in Quantum Information Sciences, including some special topics on Quantum Hall Effects, Quantum Phase Transition, Interactions in Quantum Fluids, Disorder and Interference Phenomenoma, Trapped Ions and Atoms, and Quantum Optical Devices..

Science

Physics of Atomic Nuclei | Vladimir Zelevinsky,Alexander Volya

Physics of Atomic Nuclei Pdf/ePub eBook Physics of Atomic Nuclei Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1056 | Ebook Reads: 1056 | File: Physics of Atomic Nuclei.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 3527693602

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Physics of Atomic Nuclei - Vladimir Zelevinsky,Alexander Volya Preview:

This advanced textbook presents an extensive and diverse study of low-energy nuclear physics considering the nucleus as a quantum system of strongly interacting constituents. The contents guide students from the basic facts and ideas to more modern topics including important developments over the last 20 years, resulting in a comprehensive collection of major modern-day nuclear models otherwise unavailable in the current literature. The book emphasizes the common features of the nucleus and other many-body mesoscopic systems currently in the center of interest in physics. The authors have also included full problem sets that can be selected by lecturers and adjusted to specific interests for more advanced students, with many chapters containing links to freely available computer code. As a result, readers are equipped for scientific work in mesoscopic physics..

Science

Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004 | B Piraux

Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004 Pdf/ePub eBook Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004 Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 726 | Ebook Reads: 726 | File: Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 1482269198

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Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004 - B Piraux Preview:

Electron and Photon Impact Ionization and Related Topics 2004 provides an overview of the latest advances in the field of ionization by electron and photon impact. The book contains 18 contributions of recent experimental, theoretical, and computational work on correlated processes that involve a wide range of targets, including atoms, molecules, c.

Science

Electron Transport in Quantum Dots | Jonathan P. Bird

Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Pdf/ePub eBook Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 365 | Ebook Reads: 365 | File: Electron Transport in Quantum Dots.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 1461504376

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Electron Transport in Quantum Dots - Jonathan P. Bird Preview:

When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the debate of critical issues in this still developing field. In this matter, I have been assisted greatly by the excellent series of articles provided by the different authors, who are widely recognized as some of the leaders in this vital area of research..

Technology & Engineering

Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics | T. Chakraborty,F. Peeters,U. Sivan

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Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics - T. Chakraborty,F. Peeters,U. Sivan Preview:

This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science in science and bio-electronics Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memorie has been achieved by significant downscaling of the minimum feature size. Smaller feature sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. In this process one is reaching the limits where quantum effects and fluctuations are beginning to play an important role. This book reflects the achievements of the present times and future directions of research on nanoscopic dimensions..

Science

Quantum Theory of Near-Field Electrodynamics | Ole Keller

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Quantum Theory of Near-Field Electrodynamics - Ole Keller Preview:

"Quantum Theory of Near-field Electrodynamics" gives a self-contained account of the fundamental theory of field-matter interaction on a subwavelength scale. The quantum physical behavior of matter (atoms and mesoscopic media) in both classical and quantum fields is treated. The role of local-field effects and nonlocal electrodynamics, and the tight links to the theory of spatial photon localization are emphasized. The book may serve as a reference work in the field, and is of general interest for physicists working in quantum optics, mesoscopic electrodynamics and physical optics. The macroscopic and microscopic classical theories form a good starting point for the quantum approach, and these theories are presented in a manner appropriate for graduate students entering near-field optics..

Science

Science and Technology of Mesoscopic Structures | Susumu Namba,Chihiro Hamaguchi,Tsuneya Ando

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Science and Technology of Mesoscopic Structures - Susumu Namba,Chihiro Hamaguchi,Tsuneya Ando Preview:

The International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Mesoscopic Structures was held at Shin-Kohkaido in Nara from November 6-8, 1991. The symposium was sponsored by the International Institute for Advanced Study and partly by Nara Prefecture, Nara City, Nara Convention Bureau, and the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, as well as industrial organizations. We would like to acknowledge the support of the symposium by these or ganizations. The scope of the symposium was planned by the organizing committee to cover outstanding contributors in the fields of (1) ballistic transport, (2) electron wave guides and interference effects, (3) quantum confinement effects, (4) tunneling phenomena, (5) optical nonlinearity, and (6) fabrication technology of meso scopic structures. Twenty-six invited speakers were selected from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In addition twenty-four contributed papers were accepted for presentation at the poster session. These papers are included in the proceedings. We are grateful to the organizing committee, Ms. Y oshiko Kusaki of the Inter national Institute for Advanced Study for the secretarial service, and Dr. Nobuya Mori, Osaka University, for his scientific cooperation. Thanks are also due to the authors and the participants for their contributions to a successful symposium..

Science

Frontiers of Nano-Optoelectronic Systems | Lorenzo Pavesi,Eugenia V. Buzaneva

Frontiers of Nano-Optoelectronic Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Frontiers of Nano-Optoelectronic Systems Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 608 | Ebook Reads: 608 | File: Frontiers of Nano-Optoelectronic Systems.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9401008906

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Frontiers of Nano-Optoelectronic Systems - Lorenzo Pavesi,Eugenia V. Buzaneva Preview:

Since their discovery, low dimensional materials have never stopped to intrigue scientists, whether they are physicists, chemists, or biochemists. Investigations of their nature and functions have always been and still are numerous and as soon as a solution is found for a given question, another one is raised. The coupling of nano-materials with photonics, i. e. nano-photonics, has produced a boiling pot of idea, problems, discovery and applications. This statement is abundantly illustrated in the present book. The interest in nano-optoelectronic materials and systems is very widespread, what gives a really international and multicultural flavour to nano-optoelectronic meetings. One of them was organized by our-self in May 2000 in Kiev as a NATO Advanced Research Workshop and EC-Spring School. The arrival of the new millennium provides an obvious transition point at which many aspects of nano-science and nano-engineering of nano photonic systems can be assessed with respect to the research progresses made in the pre ceding decades and to the challenges that lie ahead in the coming decades. This book was planed to mark this with the objective of presenting a collection of papers from experts, which provide broad perspectives on the state-of-the-art in the various disciplines of nano science and nano-engineering and on the directions for future research..

Science

Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics | Joseph Imry

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Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics - Joseph Imry Preview:

"Mesoscopic physics" refers to the physics of structures larger than a nanometer (one billionth of a meter) but smaller than a micrometer (one millionth of a meter). This size range is the stage on which the exciting new research on submicroscopic and electronic and mechanical devices is being done. This research often crosses the boundary between physics and engineering, since engineering such tiny electronic components requires a firm grasp of quantum physics. Applications for the future may include such wonders as microscopic robot surgeons that travel through the blood stream to repair clogged arteries, submicroscopic actuators and builders, and supercomputers that fit on the head of a pin. The world of the future is being planned and built by physicists, engineers, and chemists working in the microscopic realm. This book can be used as the main text in a course on mesoscopic physics or as a supplementary text in electronic devices, semiconductor devices, and condensed matter physics courses..

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FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS - Volume II | José L. Mora-Lopez

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FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS - Volume II - José L. Mora-Lopez Preview:

Fundamentals of Physics is a component of Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Theme on Fundamentals of Physics provides an overview of the modern areas in physics, most of which had been crystallized in the 20th century, is given. The Theme on Fundamentals of Physics deals, in three volumes and cover several topics, with a myriad of issues of great relevance to our world such as: Historical Review of Elementary Concepts in Physics; Laws of Physical Systems; Particles and Fields; Quantum Systems; Order and Disorder in Nature; Topical Review: Nuclear Processes, which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs..

Science

Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics | Henrik Bruus,Karsten Flensberg

Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 915 | Ebook Reads: 915 | File: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0191057479

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Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics - Henrik Bruus,Karsten Flensberg Preview:

This book is an introduction to the techniques of many-body quantum theory with a large number of applications to condensed matter physics. The basic idea of the book is to provide a self-contained formulation of the theoretical framework without losing mathematical rigor, while at the same time providing physical motivation and examples. The examples are taken from applications in electron systems and transport theory. On the formal side, the book covers an introduction to second quantization, many-body Green's function, finite temperature Feynman diagrams and bosonization. The applications include traditional transport theory in bulk as well as mesoscopic systems, where both the Landau-Büttiker formalism and recent developments in correlated transport phenomena in mesoscopic systems and nano-structures are covered. Other topics include interacting electron gases, plasmons, electron-phonon interactions, superconductivity and a final chapter on one-dimensional systems where a detailed treatment of Luttinger liquid theory and bosonization techniques is given. Having grown out of a set of lecture notes, and containing many pedagogical exercises, this book is designed as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course, and is also well suited for self-study..

Science

Mesoscopic Physics Meets Quantum Engineering | Shevchenko Sergey N

Mesoscopic Physics Meets Quantum Engineering Pdf/ePub eBook Mesoscopic Physics Meets Quantum Engineering Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1859 | Ebook Reads: 1859 | File: Mesoscopic Physics Meets Quantum Engineering.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9811201412

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Mesoscopic Physics Meets Quantum Engineering - Shevchenko Sergey N Preview:

Quantum mechanics was initially constructed to describe objects on atomic and subatomic scales. However, in the last decades, quantum mechanics has been revisited and its use extended to the study and description of macroscopic distinct states. This is accomplished by modeling basic objects of mesoscopic physics, such as superconducting quantum circuits and low-dimensional structures derived from a two-dimensional electronic gas. In recent years, these devices support the study of fundamental systems such as a two-level quantum system, or qubit, as an object for manipulations and applications. This book will provide an introduction to quantum computation and quantum information, based on quantum physics, solid-state theory, and theory of computing. We will become familiar with this important field and explore how it is inseparably linked to basic notions of physics such as superposition, entanglement, and quantum dynamics. Then we will consider superconducting and mesoscopic systems, as well as a series of phenomena, where important are the spectra quantization, interference, and charge discreteness.This book derives its content from a lecture course designed for graduate students and postdocs who are acquainted with quantum mechanics and statistical physics. In particular, it was developed together with the lecture series taught to 5th year students of the Department of Physics and Technology in V N Karazin Kharkiv National University..

Science

Compendium of Quantum Physics | Daniel Greenberger,Klaus Hentschel,Friedel Weinert

Compendium of Quantum Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Compendium of Quantum Physics Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1232 | Ebook Reads: 1232 | File: Compendium of Quantum Physics.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9783540706267

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Compendium of Quantum Physics - Daniel Greenberger,Klaus Hentschel,Friedel Weinert Preview:

With contributions by leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, this comprehensive A-to-Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional and new concepts, making it an indispensable resource for concise, up-to-date information about the many facets of quantum physics..

Technology & Engineering

Quantum Plasmonics | Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi,Luis Martin-Moreno,Francisco Garcia-Vidal

Quantum Plasmonics Pdf/ePub eBook Quantum Plasmonics Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 371 | Ebook Reads: 371 | File: Quantum Plasmonics.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 3319458205

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Quantum Plasmonics - Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi,Luis Martin-Moreno,Francisco Garcia-Vidal Preview:

This book presents the latest results of quantum properties of light in the nanostructured environment supporting surface plasmons, including waveguide quantum electrodynamics, quantum emitters, strong-coupling phenomena and lasing in plasmonic structures. Different approaches are described for controlling the emission and propagation of light with extreme light confinement and field enhancement provided by surface plasmons. Recent progress is reviewed in both experimental and theoretical investigations within quantum plasmonics, elucidating the fundamental physical phenomena involved and discussing the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale..

Science

Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems | Michel Devoret,Benjamin Huard,Robert Schoelkopf,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1871 | Ebook Reads: 1871 | File: Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0191503177

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Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems - Michel Devoret,Benjamin Huard,Robert Schoelkopf,Leticia F. Cugliandolo Preview:

This book gathers the lecture notes of courses given at the 2011 summer school in theoretical physics in Les Houches, France, Session XCVI. What is a quantum machine? Can we say that lasers and transistors are quantum machines? After all, physicists advertise these devices as the two main spin-offs of the understanding of quantum mechanical phenomena. However, while quantum mechanics must be used to predict the wavelength of a laser and the operation voltage of a transistor, it does not intervene at the level of the signals processed by these systems. Signals involve macroscopic collective variables like voltages and currents in a circuit or the amplitude of the oscillating electric field in an electromagnetic cavity resonator. In a true quantum machine, the signal collective variables, which both inform the outside on the state of the machine and receive controlling instructions, must themselves be treated as quantum operators, just as the position of the electron in a hydrogen atom. Quantum superconducting circuits, quantum dots, and quantum nanomechanical resonators satisfy the definition of quantum machines. These mesoscopic systems exhibit a few collective dynamical variables, whose fluctuations are well in the quantum regime and whose measurement is essentially limited in precision by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Other engineered quantum systems based on natural, rather than artificial degrees of freedom can also qualify as quantum machines: trapped ions, single Rydberg atoms in superconducting cavities, and lattices of ultracold atoms. This book provides the basic knowledge needed to understand and investigate the physics of these novel systems..

Technology & Engineering

Physics of Zero- and One-Dimensional Nanoscopic Systems | Sachindra Nath Karmakar,Santanu Kumar Maiti,Chowdhury Jayeeta

Physics of Zero- and One-Dimensional Nanoscopic Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Physics of Zero- and One-Dimensional Nanoscopic Systems Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1287 | Ebook Reads: 1287 | File: Physics of Zero- and One-Dimensional Nanoscopic Systems.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 3540726322

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Physics of Zero- and One-Dimensional Nanoscopic Systems - Sachindra Nath Karmakar,Santanu Kumar Maiti,Chowdhury Jayeeta Preview:

Submicron and nanoscale systems have risen on the research agenda. Exploiting the technological potential offered by these exotic materials requires a fundamental understanding of basic physical phenomena on the mesoscopic and nanoscopic scales. This book, written by leading experts in the field, covers such topics as the Kondo effect, electron transport, disorder and quantum coherence with electron-electron interaction, persistent current and thermoelectric phenomena, in quantum dots, quantum wires, carbon nanotubes and more..

Technology & Engineering

Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications | Bart A. van Tiggelen,Sergey E. Skipetrov

Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications Pdf/ePub eBook Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1385 | Ebook Reads: 1385 | File: Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 9401002274

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Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications - Bart A. van Tiggelen,Sergey E. Skipetrov Preview:

A collection of lectures on a variety of modern subjects in wave scattering, including fundamental issues in mesoscopic physics and radiative transfer, recent hot topics such as random lasers, liquid crystals, lefthanded materials and time-reversal, as well as modern applications in imaging and communication. There is a strong emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspects of wave propagation, including light and microwaves, acoustic and elastic waves, propagating in a variety of "complex" materials (liquid crystals, media with gain, natural media, magneto-optical media, photonic and phononic materials, etc.). It addresses many different items in contemporary research: mesoscopic fluctuations, localization, radiative transfer, symmetry aspects, and time-reversal. It also discusses new (potential) applications in telecommunication, soft matter and imaging..

Science

Basic Optics | Avijit Lahiri

Basic Optics Pdf/ePub eBook Basic Optics Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 325 | Ebook Reads: 325 | File: Basic Optics.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 0128093072

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Basic Optics - Avijit Lahiri Preview:

Basic Optics: Principles and Concepts addresses in great detail the basic principles of the science of optics, and their related concepts. The book provides a lucid and coherent presentation of an extensive range of concepts from the field of optics, which is of central relevance to several broad areas of science, including physics, chemistry, and biology. With its extensive range of discourse, the book’s content arms scientists and students with knowledge of the essential concepts of classical and modern optics. It can be used as a reference book and also as a supplementary text by students at college and university levels and will, at the same time, be of considerable use to researchers and teachers. The book is composed of nine chapters and includes a great deal of material not covered in many of the more well-known textbooks on the subject. The science of optics has undergone major changes in the last fifty years because of developments in the areas of the optics of metamaterials, Fourier optics, statistical optics, quantum optics, and nonlinear optics, all of which find their place in this book, with a clear presentation of their basic principles. Even the more traditional areas of ray optics and wave optics are elaborated within the framework of electromagnetic theory, at a level more fundamental than what one finds in many of the currently available textbooks. Thus, the eikonal approximation leading to ray optics, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of ray optics, the quantum theoretic interpretation of interference, the vector and dyadic diffraction theories, the geometrical theory of diffraction, and similar other topics of basic relevance are presented in clear terms. The presentation is lucid and elegant, capturing the essential magic and charm of physics. All this taken together makes the book a unique text, of major contemporary relevance, in the field of optics. Avijit Lahiri is a well-known researcher, teacher, and author, with publications in several areas of physics, and with a broad range of current interests, including physics and the philosophy of science. Provides extensive and thoroughly exhaustive coverage of classical and modern optics Offers a lucid presentation in understandable language, rendering the abstract and difficult concepts of physics in an easy, accessible way Develops all concepts from elementary levels to advanced stages Includes a sequential description of all needed mathematical tools Relates fundamental concepts to areas of current research interest.