Business & Economics

Media Ownership and Concentration in America | ,

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The concentration of private power over media has been the subject of intense public debate around the world. Critics have long feared waves of mergers creating a handful of large media firms that would hold sway over public opinion and endanger democracy and innovation. But others believe with equal fervor that the Internet and deregulation have opened the media landscape significantly. How concentrated has the American information sector really become? What are the facts about American media ownership? In this contentious environment, Eli Noam provides a comprehensive and balanced survey of media concentration with a methodical, scientific approach. He assembles a wealth of data from the last 25 years about mass media such as radio, television, film, music, and print publishing, as well as the Internet, telecommunications, and media-related information technology. After examining 100 separate media and network industries in detail, Noam provides a powerful summary and analysis of concentration trends across industries and major media sectors. He also looks at local media power, vertical concentration, and the changing nature of media ownership through financial institutions and private equity. The results reveal a reality much more complex than the one painted by advocates on either side of the debate. They show a dynamic system that fluctuates around long-term concentration trends driven by changing economics and technology. Media Ownership and Concentration in America will be essential reading and a trove of information for scholars and students in media, telecommunications, IT, economics, and the history of business, as well as media industry professionals, business researchers, and policy makers around the world. Critics and defenders of media trends alike will find much that confirms and refutes their world view. But the next round of their debate will be shaped by the facts presented in this book..

Business & Economics

Who Owns the World's Media? | Eli M. Noam,The International Media Concentration Collaboration

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Media ownership and concentration has major implications for politics, business, culture, regulation, and innovation. It is also a highly contentious subject of public debate in many countries around the world. In Italy, Silvio Berlusconi's companies have dominated Italian politics. Televisa has been accused of taking cash for positive coverage of politicians in Mexico. Even in tiny Iceland, the regulation of media concentration led to that country's first and only public referendum. Who Owns the World's Media? moves beyond the rhetoric of free media and free markets to provide a dispassionate and data-driven analysis of global media ownership trends and their drivers. Based on an extensive data collection effort from scholars around the world, the book covers thirteen media industries, including television, newspapers, book publishing, film, search engines, ISPs, wireless telecommunication and others, across a ten to twenty-five year period in thirty countries. In many countries--like Egypt, China, or Russia--little to no data exists and the publication of these chapters will become authoritative resources on the subject in those regions. After examining each country, Noam and his collaborators offer comparisons and analysis across industries, regions, and development levels. They also calculate overall national concentration trends beyond specific media industries, the market share of individual companies in the overall national media sector, and the size and trends of transnational companies in overall global media. This definitive global study of the extent and impact of media concentration will be an invaluable resource for communications, public policy, law, and business scholars in doing research and also for media, telecom, and IT companies and financial institutions in the private sector..

Language Arts & Disciplines

Media Ownership | Gillian Doyle

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The digital revolution is transforming media and communications industries worldwide, and media companies are keen to emerge at the forefront of an increasingly transnational and competitive communications marketplace. However, the volume and scale of mergers and alliances involving media players has raised considerable challenges for regulators and state authorities alike. Media Ownership: - Investigates the commercial and strategic advantages of consolidation and cross-media expansion - Examines the socio-political and cultural implications of media concentration - Analyzes how policy makers have responded to media concentration and convergence - Assesses the relationship between media ownership and economic performance - Looks at the balance of power between politicians and media owners This book offers an up-to-date critical overview of the contemporary media environment, as such it will be an essential text for all those with an interest in media economics, media policy, media law and management..

Current Events

The Problem of the Media | Robert D. McChesney

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The symptoms of the crisis of the U.S. media are well-known—a decline in hard news, the growth of info-tainment and advertorials, staff cuts and concentration of ownership, increasing conformity of viewpoint and suppression of genuine debate. McChesney's new book, The Problem of the Media, gets to the roots of this crisis, explains it, and points a way forward for the growing media reform movement. Moving consistently from critique to action, the book explores the political economy of the media, illuminating its major flashpoints and controversies by locating them in the political economy of U.S. capitalism. It deals with issues such as the declining quality of journalism, the question of bias, the weakness of the public broadcasting sector, and the limits and possibilities of antitrust legislation in regulating the media. It points out the ways in which the existing media system has become a threat to democracy, and shows how it could be made to serve the interests of the majority. McChesney's Rich Media, Poor Democracy was hailed as a pioneering analysis of the way in which media had come to serve the interests of corporate profit rather than public enlightenment and debate. Bill Moyers commented, "If Thomas Paine were around, he would have written this book." The Problem of the Media is certain to be a landmark in media studies, a vital resource for media activism, and essential reading for concerned scholars and citizens everywhere..

Social Science

Media Freedom and Pluralism | Beata Klimkiewicz

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The book addresses a critical analysis of major media policies in the European Union and the Council of Europe at the period of profound changes affecting both media environments and use, as well as the logic of media policy making and reconfiguration of traditional regulatory models. The analytical problem-related approach explores three problem areas: freedom of expression as a regulatory rationale, AVMS Directive and content-related regulation, and media pluralism and structural regulation. This volume offers a perspective of both "new" and "old" EU Member States on a media policy process seen as an integral part of a European communication space formation and exercise of communication rights. Book jacket..

Political Science

Requiem for the American Dream | Noam Chomsky

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A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER! In his first major book on the subject of income inequality, Noam Chomsky skewers the fundamental tenets of neoliberalism and casts a clear, cold, patient eye on the economic facts of life. What are the ten principles of concentration of wealth and power at work in America today? They're simple enough: reduce democracy, shape ideology, redesign the economy, shift the burden onto the poor and middle classes, attack the solidarity of the people, let special interests run the regulators, engineer election results, use fear and the power of the state to keep the rabble in line, manufacture consent, marginalize the population. In Requiem for the American Dream, Chomsky devotes a chapter to each of these ten principles, and adds readings from some of the core texts that have influenced his thinking to bolster his argument. To create Requiem for the American Dream, Chomsky and his editors, the filmmakers Peter Hutchison, Kelly Nyks, and Jared P. Scott, spent countless hours together over the course of five years, from 2011 to 2016. After the release of the film version, Chomsky and the editors returned to the many hours of tape and transcript and created a document that included three times as much text as was used in the film. The book that has resulted is nonetheless arguably the most succinct and tightly woven of Chomsky's long career, a beautiful vessel--including old-fashioned ligatures in the typeface--in which to carry Chomsky's bold and uncompromising vision, his perspective on the economic reality and its impact on our political and moral well-being as a nation. "During the Great Depression, which I'm old enough to remember, it was bad–much worse subjectively than today. But there was a sense that we'll get out of this somehow, an expectation that things were going to get better . . ." —from Requiem for the American Dream.

Language Arts & Disciplines

Crash to Paywall | Brian Gorman

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In 2014, when Postmedia acquired Quebecor's Sun Media newspaper and online assets, there was a sense that the recent history of newspapers was repeating itself not as comedy or tragedy, but as eulogy. Crash to Paywall shows that while the newspaper business was weakened by decreases in advertising revenues and circulation, much of its problems stem from self-inflicted damage and business practices dating back to the 1970s. Brian Gorman explores the Canadian newspaper industry crisis and the relationship between the news media and the public. He challenges both the popular mantra that a "perfect storm" of unforeseen circumstances blindsided a declining industry and the narrative that readers were abandoning newspapers, causing advertisers to turn away from "dying" media. Gorman argues that observers had been warning for decades that the business was creating its own problems by acquiring ever-larger debt and shareholder obligations while steadily cutting back on journalists' resources. Finally, by providing journalism for free online, newspaper companies devalued their most important resource and impaired their profitable print products. With dozens of interviews conducted with leading Canadian journalists and editors, Crash to Paywall brings to light the many misconceptions, generalizations, omissions, and highly suspect conclusions about the present state of newspapers and their future..

Language Arts & Disciplines

Management and Economics of Communication | M. Bjørn Rimscha

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This handbook combines the perspectives of communication studies, economics and management, and psychology in order to provide a comprehensive economic view on personal and mass communication. It is divided into six parts that comprise: 1. an overarching introduction that defines the field and provides a brief overview of its history (1 chapter) 2. the most commonly used theoretic frameworks for the analysis of communication economics and management (4 chapters) 3. the peculiarities of the quantitative and qualitative methods and data used in the field (3 chapters) 4. key issues of the field such as the economics of language, labor in creative industries, media concentration, branding etc. (10 chapters) 5. descriptions of the development, trends and peculiarities of the field in different parts of the world, written by scholars from the respective region (10 chapters) 6. reflections on future directions for the field, both from a managerial and from an economics perspective (1 chapter). The authors of the individual chapters represent different academic disciplines, research traditions, and geographic backgrounds. The reader will thus gain multifaceted insights into the management and economics of communication..

Medical

Communities in Action | National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States

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In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome..

Social Science

Manufacturing Consent | Edward S. Herman,Noam Chomsky

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An intellectual dissection of the modern media to show how an underlying economics of publishing warps the news..

Social Science

Rich Media, Poor Democracy | Robert W. McChesney

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An updated edition of the “penetrating study” examining how the current state of mass media puts our democracy at risk (Noam Chomsky). What happens when a few conglomerates dominate all major aspects of mass media, from newspapers and magazines to radio and broadcast television? After all the hype about the democratizing power of the internet, is this new technology living up to its promise? Since the publication of this prescient work, which won Harvard’s Goldsmith Book Prize and the Kappa Tau Alpha Research Award, the concentration of media power and the resultant “hypercommercialization of media” has only intensified. Robert McChesney lays out his vision for what a truly democratic society might look like, offering compelling suggestions for how the media can be reformed as part of a broader program of democratic renewal. Rich Media, Poor Democracy remains as vital and insightful as ever and continues to serve as an important resource for researchers, students, and anyone who has a stake in the transformation of our digital commons. This new edition includes a major new preface by McChesney, where he offers both a history of the transformation in media since the book first appeared; a sweeping account of the organized efforts to reform the media system; and the ongoing threats to our democracy as journalism has continued its sharp decline. “Those who want to know about the relationship of media and democracy must read this book.” —Neil Postman “If Thomas Paine were around, he would have written this book.” —Bill Moyers.

Psychology

Plugged In | Patti M. Valkenburg,Jessica Taylor Piotrowski

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An illuminating study of the complex relationship between children and media in the digital age Now, as never before, young people are surrounded by media—thanks to the sophistication and portability of the technology that puts it literally in the palms of their hands. Drawing on data and empirical research that cross many fields and continents, authors Valkenburg and Piotrowski examine the role of media in the lives of children from birth through adolescence, addressing the complex issues of how media affect the young and what adults can do to encourage responsible use in an age of selfies, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. This important study looks at both the sunny and the dark side of media use by today’s youth, including why and how their preferences change throughout childhood, whether digital gaming is harmful or helpful, the effects of placing tablets and smartphones in the hands of toddlers, the susceptibility of young people to online advertising, the legitimacy of parental concerns about media multitasking, and more..

Business & Economics

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism | Shoshana Zuboff

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The challenges to humanity posed by the digital future, the first detailed examination of the unprecedented form of power called "surveillance capitalism," and the quest by powerful corporations to predict and control our behavior. In this masterwork of original thinking and research, Shoshana Zuboff provides startling insights into the phenomenon that she has named surveillance capitalism. The stakes could not be higher: a global architecture of behavior modification threatens human nature in the twenty-first century just as industrial capitalism disfigured the natural world in the twentieth. Zuboff vividly brings to life the consequences as surveillance capitalism advances from Silicon Valley into every economic sector. Vast wealth and power are accumulated in ominous new "behavioral futures markets," where predictions about our behavior are bought and sold, and the production of goods and services is subordinated to a new "means of behavioral modification." The threat has shifted from a totalitarian Big Brother state to a ubiquitous digital architecture: a "Big Other" operating in the interests of surveillance capital. Here is the crucible of an unprecedented form of power marked by extreme concentrations of knowledge and free from democratic oversight. Zuboff's comprehensive and moving analysis lays bare the threats to twenty-first century society: a controlled "hive" of total connection that seduces with promises of total certainty for maximum profit -- at the expense of democracy, freedom, and our human future. With little resistance from law or society, surveillance capitalism is on the verge of dominating the social order and shaping the digital future -- if we let it..

Business & Economics

Telecommunications in Africa | Eli M. Noam

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A modern telecommunications network is an essential infrastructure for the world's developing nations. The emergence of new technologies, the entrance of supra-national carriers, and deregulation in the telecommunications sector have resulted in the globalization of telecommunications and the opening of markets on every continent. Collecting the work of 19 expert contributors, this book provides a comprehensive examination of what African countries are doing to build their telecommunications capabilities. Africa has historically lagged behind other regions in developing its telecommunications infrastructure, and the penetration rate for basic service is still relatively low. But as some African nations undergo restructuring, they have begun to open their networks to foreign investors and regional cooperative ventures to expand basic and advanced telecommunications services. The contributors discuss the uneven pace of economic, regulatory, and social change among African nations as state telecommunications monopolies maintain their hold in some countries and give way to privatization in others. Analyzing the political and economic changes of the 1990s, the contributors provide clues about how Africa can shake off decades of inertia and prepare to take part in the global information economy. Edited by an internationally recognized authority on telecommunications, this volume is the latest in a series that surveys telecommunications in the major regions of the world. Thorough and accessible, it is a valuable resource for students and scholars in the areas of communications, economics, regulatory law, telecommunications engineering, and African studies, as well as telecommunications professionals and policy makers..

Political Science

Media Pluralism and Diversity | Peggy Valcke,Miklos Sukosd,Robert Picard

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Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity intends to advance our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics that have been developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism..

Language Arts & Disciplines

Media Economics | Alison Alexander,James E. Owers,Rod Carveth,C. Ann Hollifield,Albert N. Greco

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Media Economics - Alison Alexander,James E. Owers,Rod Carveth,C. Ann Hollifield,Albert N. Greco Preview:

Media Economics: Theory and Practice focuses on the basic principles of economics in the business sector and applies them to contemporary media industries. This text examines the process of media economics decision making through an exploration of key topics, such as industrial restructuring, regulatory constraints upon media operations, and changing economic value, providing key insights into media business activities. With the structure and value of media industries changing rapidly and sometimes dramatically, this text moves beyond a basic documentation of historical patterns to help readers understand the mechanics of change, offering insight into the processes reproducing contemporary trends in media economics. Thoroughly updated in this third edition, Media Economics focuses on the primary concerns of media economics, the techniques of economic and business analysis, and the overall characteristics of the media environment; and explores contemporary business practices within specific media industries, including newspaper, magazine, television, cable, movie, radio advertising, music, and online industries. New for this edition are chapters on the advertising, book publishing, and magazine publishing industries. Chapters contributed by expert scholars and researchers provide substantial discussions of the crucial topics and issues in the media industry sectors, and emphasize both domestic and international businesses. Offering a thorough examination of the economic factors and forces concerning the media industries, Media Economics is appropriate for use as a course text for advanced media management and economics students. It also serves as an indispensable reference for scholars and researchers in media business arenas..

Social Science

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America | Richard Rothstein

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New York Times Bestseller • Notable Book of the Year • Editors' Choice Selection One of Bill Gates’ “Amazing Books” of the Year One of Publishers Weekly’s 10 Best Books of the Year Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction An NPR Best Book of the Year Winner of the Hillman Prize for Nonfiction Gold Winner • California Book Award (Nonfiction) Finalist • Los Angeles Times Book Prize (History) Finalist • Brooklyn Public Library Literary Prize This “powerful and disturbing history” exposes how American governments deliberately imposed racial segregation on metropolitan areas nationwide (New York Times Book Review). Widely heralded as a “masterful” (Washington Post) and “essential” (Slate) history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law offers “the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation” (William Julius Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. A groundbreaking, “virtually indispensable” study that has already transformed our understanding of twentieth-century urban history (Chicago Daily Observer), The Color of Law forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past..

Social Science

Encyclopedia of Gender in Media | Mary Kosut

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The media strongly influences our everyday notions of gender roles and our concepts of gender identity. The Encyclopedia of Gender in Media critically examines the role of the media in enabling, facilitating, or challenging the social construction of gender in our society. The work addresses a variety of entertainment and news content in print and electronic media and explores the social construction of masculinity as well as femininity. In addition to representations of gender within the media, we also analyze gender issues related to media ownership and the media workforce. Despite an abundance of textbooks, anthologies, and university press monographs on the topic of gender in media, until now no comprehensive reference work has tackled this topic of perennial interest in student research and papers. Features and benefits: 150 signed entries (each with Cross References and Further Readings) are organized in A-to-Z fashion to give students easy access to the full range of topics within gender in media. A thematic Reader's Guide in the front matter groups related entries by broad topical or thematic areas to make it easy for users to find related entries at a glance, with themes including "Discrimination & Media Effects," "Media Modes," "New Media," "Media Portrayals & Representations," "Biographies," and more. In the electronic version, the Reader's Guide combines with a detailed Index and the Cross References to provide users with robust search-and browse capacities. A Chronology in the back matter helps students put individual events into broader historical context. A Glossary provides students with concise definitions to key terms in the field. A Resource Guide to classic books, journals, and web sites (along with the Further Readings accompanying each entry) helps guide students to further resources for their research journeys. An Appendix provides users with a number of reports related to gender in media..

Medical

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System | National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System

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A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System - National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System Preview:

How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices..

Business & Economics

Regulation, Governance and Convergence in the Media | Peter Humphreys,Seamus Simpson

Regulation, Governance and Convergence in the Media Pdf/ePub eBook Regulation, Governance and Convergence in the Media Pdf ebook download. Number Downloads: 1496 | Ebook Reads: 1496 | File: Regulation, Governance and Convergence in the Media.pdf/epub | ISBNCode: 178100899X

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Media convergence is often propounded as inevitable and ongoing. Yet much of the governance of the media sector’s key parts has developed along discrete evolutionary paths, mostly incremental in character. This volume breaks new ground through exploring a diverse range of topics at the heart of the media convergence governance debate, such as next generation networks, spectrum, copyright and media subsidies. It shows how reluctance to accommodate non-market based policy solutions creates conflicts and problems resulting in only shallow media convergence thus far..